Case Description—A 1-year-old 7.4-kg (16.3-lb) castrated male mixed-breed dog was evaluated because of intermittent lameness and an antebrachial angular limb deformity.
Clinical Findings—The left forelimb had gross antebrachial external rotation (approx 90°) and marked procurvatum. Radiography revealed a severe partially compensated biapical antebrachial angular limb deformity. Measurements of medial proximal radial angle (MPRA) and lateral distal radial angle (LDRA) were obtained from orthogonal radiographs of the proximal and distal segments of the radius, respectively. Elbow joint-to-carpus translation was quantified. Deformities were localized and quantified by the center of rotation of angulation (CORA) method. Computed tomographic 3-dimensional image reconstructions of the antebrachium and carpus were completed to create 3 life-size stereolithographic models.
Treatment and Outcome—2 closing wedge radial osteotomies were performed at the level of the CORAs and stabilized with bone plates and screws.
Results—Frontal and sagittal plane alignments were corrected to 8° and 15°, respectively (reference limits, 0° to 8° and 8° to 35°, respectively). The MPRA was corrected from 55° to 68°, and LDRA was corrected from 32° to 76° (values considered normal are approx 85° and 87°, respectively). Elbow joint-to-carpus translation was improved by 42.5%. After 8 weeks, radiography revealed bone union. Owners considered the outcome acceptable, on the basis of limb appearance and lack of lameness at 1 year after surgery.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A segmental radiographic planning technique combined with the CORA method, computed tomography, and stereolithography may be useful in the characterization of and planning corrective surgery for forelimb deformities in dogs.
Objective—To determine the magnitude of the change in colloid oncotic pressure (COP) associated with general anesthesia in dogs undergoing a variety of elective procedures.
Animals—50 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—For each dog, preanesthetic and postanesthetic PCV, plasma total solids (TS) concentration, and COP were determined. The procedures requiring anesthesia, volume of crystalloid fluids administered IV, duration of anesthesia, age, weight, and sex were recorded.
Results—Postanesthetic PCV (mean ± SD, 41.8 ± 5.4%), TS concentration (6.3 ± 0.8 g/dL), and COP (19.4 ± 3.6 mm Hg) were significantly decreased, compared with preanesthetic values (48.8 ± 5.9%, 7.2 ± 0.7 g/dL, and 24.4 ± 4.2 mm Hg, respectively). None of the variables tested could be used to reliably predict changes in COP.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that COP in healthy dogs may decrease by 5 mm Hg on average after general anesthesia and that this decrease may not be reliably predicted by the volume of fluids administered IV during anesthesia or by the concurrent measured decrease in TS concentration.
Objective—To determine the lowest dose of cosyntropin on a per body weight basis that would produce maximal cortisol and aldosterone secretion and the ideal timing of blood sample collection after ACTH stimulation in healthy cats.
Design—Randomized crossover trial.
Animals—7 adult sexually intact male purpose-bred cats.
Procedures—Each cat received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control) and 5 doses (125 μg/cat and 10, 5, 2.5, and 1 μg/kg [4.54, 2.27, 1.14, and 0.45 μg/lb]) of cosyntropin IV with a 2-week washout period between treatments. Blood samples were obtained before (baseline) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes after administration of saline solution or cosyntropin.
Results—Serum cortisol and aldosterone concentration increased significantly, compared with baseline values, after administration of all cosyntropin doses. Lower doses of cosyntropin resulted in an adrenocortical response equivalent to the traditional dose of 125 μg/cat. The lowest doses of cosyntropin that stimulated a maximal cortisol and aldosterone response were 5 and 2.5 μg/kg, respectively. Lower doses of cosyntropin resulted in a shorter interval between IV administration of cosyntropin and peak serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Low-dose ACTH stimulation testing with IV administration of cosyntropin at 5 μg/kg followed by blood sample collection at 60 to 75 minutes resulted in concurrent peak serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations that were equivalent to those achieved following administration of cosyntropin at 125 μg/cat, the standard dose currently used.