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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

From January 1986 through December 1987, 277 cases of cryptosporidiosis in calves were diagnosed by the South Dakota State University Diagnostic Laboratory. Cryptosporidium sp was the only pathogen identified in 142 (51.3%) of the calves. Concurrent infections with rotavirus, coronavirus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp, bovine viral diarrhea virus, or other pathogens were identified in the remaining 135 calves. After elimination of cases involving autolyzed specimens or calves with chronic diarrhea, records of 11 calves with acute, severe cryptosporidiosis were identified in which Cryptosporidium sp was the only pathogen.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine prevalence of intestinal chlamydial infection in pigs and to compare prevalence of diarrhea in infected pigs with that in noninfected pigs to evaluate the importance of Chlamydia sp as causes of diarrhea in pigs.

Animals and Procedures

Intestines from 351 sick pigs submitted to 2 veterinary diagnostic laboratories and from 96 healthy pigs that were part of an Escherichia coli susceptibility study were examined by immunoperoxidase staining for chlamydial antigen. The proportion of Chlamydia-infected pigs in each group was calculated and compared. The proportion of Chlamydia-infected pigs with diarrhea was compared with the proportion of noninfected pigs with diarrhea.

Results

15% of the sick and healthy pigs were infected with Chlamydia sp. Prevalence of diarrhea was equal between infected and noninfected pigs. Chlamydia sp were the third most common pathogens identified, and prevalence of chlamydial infection increased after 3 weeks of age.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Intestinal chlamydiosis is common in commercial pigs, but most, if not all, infections are subclinical. Without collaborative evidence, simply identifying Chlamydia sp in feces or the intestinal tract of pigs with enteritis or diseases of other organ systems should not be considered proof that the organism caused the clinical signs of disease. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:260–264)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A form of enteric Escherichia coli infection was identified in 60 calves from 59 farming operations. The E coli responsible for these infections principally colonized the colon, inducing a distinctive lesion described as attaching and effacing. Hemorrhagic enterocolitis or blood in the feces was observed on 40% of the farms. Of affected calves, 86.6% were dairy calves (average age, 11.8 days). Forty-four calves were infected concurrently with other enteropathogens (cryptosporidia, rotavirus, coronavirus, enterotoxigenic E coli, bovine viral diarrhea virus, coccidia). Verotoxin-producing E coli was recovered from 31 calves; 8 were serotype 0 111:NM isolates, 3 were serotype 05:NM, and 1 was serotype 026:NM.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate effectiveness of an allicin-based product in neonatal calves inoculated with Cryptosporidium parvum.

Design

Randomized controlled study.

Animals

43 neonatal calves.

Procedure

Calves were inoculated with 1.5 × l06 or 7.5 × 105 C parvum oocysts within 2 days after birth. Calves were given an allicin-based product once after inoculation or daily for 7 days after inoculation or were not treated. Calves that developed diarrhea were treated by administration of the product. Fecal consistency scores and weight gains were statistically evaluated.

Results

Mean daily weight gain and severity of diarrhea in calves 4 to 21 days old were unaffected by prophylactic use of the product. However, intensive prophylactic administration may have delayed onset of C parvum-induced diarrhea in calves inoculated with the lower dose of oocysts.

Clinical Implications

Administration of an allicin-based product did not alter duration of C parvum-induced diarrhea or enhance weight gain in neonatal calves. However, intensive prophylactic administration of an allicin-based product may delay onset of diarrhea in calves exposed to C parvum oocysts. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:987–990)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to distinguish Campylobacter jejuni from C coll as causes of reproductive failure.

Procedure

Review of clinical cases of reproductive failure attributed to C jejuni or C coli.

Results

A case of swine abortion was attributable to infection with C coli. The porcine abortion isolates were verified as C coli by restriction fragment length polymorphism and multiplex PCR. Cases of endometritis in a fox and in mink caused by C jejuni were reviewed, and isolates were confirmed as C jejuni by results of the multiplex PCR.

Conclusion

Multiplex PCR was useful in identifying C coli and C jejuni recovered from atypical cases of reproductive failure. Multiplex PCR in conjunction with conventional assays may be useful for verifying other unusual instances of campylobacteriosis. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1070–1075)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research