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Summary

Influence of age, breed, and stage of pregnancy on hepatic ultrasonographic findings of cows was determined. In addition, the relation between body weight, height at the withers, milk production, and the measurements determined via ultrasonography was investigated.

The liver of 186 cows was examined ultrasonographically. The cows comprised Swiss Braunvieh, Simmental, and Holstein breeds, and age ranged from 2.5 to 11.5 years. The ultrasonographic findings of the liver, gallbladder, caudal vena cava, and portal vein were described, and the position, size, thickness, and distal angle of the liver were determined. In addition, the position and diameter of the caudal vena cava and portal vein were determined. There was no significant difference between any of the variables determined and breed or age. Therefore, measurements for the 3 breeds and for the various ages were summarized into 1 group. There were significant correlations between body weight, milk production, and size and thickness of the liver.

In 3 pregnant cows, the liver was examined ultrasonographically 8 times during the course of pregnancy. Positive correlation was detected between stage of pregnancy and diameter of the caudal vena cava. There was a negative correlation between stage of pregnancy and diameter of the portal vein.

In 23 cows, the ultrasonographically determined measurements of the liver were compared with those determined at slaughter. Weight of the liver correlated well to thickness of the liver determined via ultrasonography.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A method was developed for percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis in cattle. The procedure was performed on the right side in the 9th, 10th, or 11th intercostal space of 30 cows. Of the 30 cows, 20 were slaughtered 24 hours after cholecystocentesis and the remaining 10 cows were slaughtered after a 10-day observation period. Changes in the peritoneum and gallbladder wall, observed at slaughter, were minimal. During the 10-day observation period, general behavior, attitude, and ap-petite of the 10 cows were normal. A transient, slight increase in rectal temperature was observed in 6 cows at 4, 5, or 8 days after cholecystocentesis. Total and differential wbc counts and total protein and fibrinogen concentrations, determined daily, were all within normal ranges. Bile samples from 20 cows were examined microscopically and biochemically. Fasciola hepatica and Dicrocoelium dendriticum eggs were observed in bile from 7 and 12 cows, respectively. Fecal examination revealed F hepatica eggs in 4 cows; D dendriticum eggs were not identified in any of the fecal samples. In 1 cow, F hepatica eggs were observed in the feces, but not in the bile. Bile acids concentration in bile varied from 12.5 to 68.5 mmol/ L (mean ± SD, 45.3 ± 3.05 mmol/L) and in serum from 3.8 to 281.0 μmol/L (41.6 ± 17.24 μmol/L). Negative correlation was obtained between bile acids concentration in bile and that in serum (r = −0.60, P < 0.01). It was concluded that percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis in cows is a safe procedure and that microscopic and biochemical examinations of obtained bile can be useful diagnostic aids.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

We determined the position, dimensions, and structure of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra of 62 female sheep by use of ultrasonography. A 5.0-MHz convex transducer was placed over the right flank to examine the kidneys, and a 5.0 MHz-linear transducer was used to examine the bladder and urethra transrectally. All examinations were performed on sheep in standing position. The left kidney was 7.1 to 8.9 cm long, 3.4 to 5.5 cm wide, and 3.3 to 4.7 cm deep. Diameter of the parenchyma and renal sinus of the left kidney ranged between 1.1 and 1.9 cm and 1.1 and 2.0 cm, respectively. Circumference of the medullary pyramids varied between 2.1 and 3.3 cm. Similar ultrasonographic measurements were obtained for the right kidney.

The diameter of the bladder varied between 0.3 and 6.9 cm in 96.8% of the sheep. The diameter of the bladder could not be determined in 32% of the sheep because it was > 10 cm, and, therefore, was beyond the penetration depth of the scanner.

The only part of the urethra that could be ultrasonographically visualized was the internal urethral orifice. It had diameter between 0.1 and 0.2 cm. The ureters could not be ultrasonographically visualized in any of the sheep examined.

The urinary tract of 8 sheep was examined 10 times within 2 weeks to examine whether measurements were reproducible. The interassay variation coefficient determined ranged from 3.1 to 31.8%, although for most variables, it ranged between 5 and 11%. Measurements for the length and width of the kidneys had the smallest interassay variation coefficient, whereas values obtained for diameter of the bladder and urethra, as well as thickness of the bladder, had the largest.

It was concluded that the ultrasonographic findings described in this study can be used as references for diagnosis of morphologic changes in the kidneys, bladder, and urethra of sheep.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research