OBJECTIVE To develop a partial budget analysis of direct costs associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in preweaned calves on US beef cow–calf operations and identify factors that strongly influence those costs.
DESIGN Risk analysis model.
ANIMALS US preweaned beef calf inventory from 2011 through 2015.
PROCEDURES A stochastic simulation model was developed by use of a computer spreadsheet and add-in software. Input data were obtained from the USDA, peer-reviewed literature, and a survey of beef cow–calf producers. A simulation consisting of 10,000 iterations was used to account for either uncertainty or variability in model inputs. The median (90% confidence interval) was reported for each output variable. Global and local sensitivity analyses were performed to identify the most influential factors and quantitatively evaluate the effects of inputs on the estimated costs.
RESULTS From 2011 through 2015, BRD in preweaned calves cost the US beef cow–calf industry approximately $165 million annually, of which costs associated with the death, treatment, and decreased weaning weight of BRD-affected calves were approximately $126, $25, and $15 million, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Although BRD in preweaned calves may have a fairly small effect on the total gross income for the US beef cow–calf industry as a whole, it can have a substantial adverse effect on the net profit of BRD-affected herds. The model developed provided important information regarding the cost of BRD in preweaned calves on US beef cow–calf operations and identified factors that had an import effect on those costs.
Objective—To determine whether kinematic changes
induced by heel pressure in horses differ from those
induced by toe pressure.
Animals—10 adult Quarter Horses.
Procedure—A shoe that applied pressure on the
cuneus ungulae (frog) or on the toe was used.
Kinematic analyses were performed before and after 2
levels of frog pressure and after 1 level of toe pressure.
Values for stride displacement and time and joint angles
were determined from horses trotting on a treadmill.
Results—The first level of frog pressure caused
decreases in metacarpophalangeal (fetlock) joint extension
during stance and increases in head vertical movement
and asymmetry. The second level of frog pressure
caused these changes but also caused decreases in
stride duration and carpal joint extension during stance
as well as increases in relative stance duration. Toe pressure
caused changes in these same variables but also
caused maximum extension of the fetlock joint to occur
before midstance, maximum hoof height to be closer to
midswing, and forelimb protraction to increase.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Decreased fetlock
joint extension during stance and increased head
vertical movement and asymmetry are sensitive indicators
of forelimb lameness. Decreased stride duration,
increased relative stance duration, and decreased
carpal joint extension during stance are general but
insensitive indicators of forelimb lameness. Increased
forelimb protraction, hoof flight pattern with maximum
hoof height near midswing, and maximum fetlock joint
extension in cranial stance may be specific indicators
of lameness in the toe region. Observation of forelimb
movement may enable clinicians to differentiate lameness
of the heel from lameness of the toe. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:612-619)
Objective—To determine whether treatment with
selamectin would reduce clinical signs of flea allergy
dermatitis (FAD) in dogs and cats housed in flea-infested
Design—Randomized controlled trial.
Animals—22 dogs and 17 cats confirmed to have FAD.
Procedure—Animals were housed in carpeted pens
capable of supporting the flea life cycle and infested
with 100 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) on days –13 and
–2 and on alternate weeks with 10 to 20 fleas. On day
0, 11 dogs and 8 cats were treated with selamectin (6
mg/kg [2.7 mg/lb]). Dogs were retreated on day 30;
cats were retreated on days 30 and 60. All animals
were examined periodically for clinical signs of FAD.
Flea counts were conducted at weekly intervals.
Results—Throughout the study, geometric mean flea
counts exceeded 100 for control animals and were ≤ 11
for selamectin-treated animals. Selamectin-treated
cats had significant improvements in the severity of
miliary lesions and scaling or crusting on days 42 and
84, compared with conditions on day –8, and in severity
of excoriation on day 42. In contrast, control cats did
not have any significant improvements in any of the
clinical signs of FAD. Selamectin-treated dogs had significant
improvements in all clinical signs on days 28
and 61, but in control dogs, severity of clinical signs of
FAD was not significantly different from baseline severity
at any time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that topical administration of selamectin, even without
the use of supplementary environmental control
measures and with minimal therapeutic intervention,
can reduce the severity of clinical signs of FAD in dogs
and cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:639–644)
Objective—To identify hind limb and pelvic kinematic
variables that change in trotting horses after induced
lameness of the distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal
joints and after subsequent intra-articular administration
Animals—8 clinically normal adult horses.
Procedure—Kinematic measurements were made
before and after transient endotoxin-induced lameness
of the distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joints and
after intra-articular administration of anesthetic.
Fourteen displacement and joint angle (metatarsophalangeal
[fetlock] and tarsal joints) measurements were
made on the right hind limb, sacrum, and the right and
left tubera coxae. Kinematic measurements were compared
by general linear models, using a repeated measures
ANOVA. Post hoc multiple comparisons between
treatments were evaluated with a Fisher least squared
difference test at α = 0.05.
Results—After lameness induction, fetlock and tarsal
joint extension during stance decreased, fetlock joint
flexion and hoof height during swing increased, limb protraction
decreased, and vertical excursion of the tubera
coxae became more asymmetric. After intra-articular
administration of anesthetic, limb protraction returned to
the degree seen before lameness, and vertical excursion
of the tubera coxae became more symmetric.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increased
length of hind limb protraction and symmetry of tubera
coxae vertical excursion are sensitive indicators of
improvement in tarsal joint lameness. When evaluating
changes in tarsal joint lameness, evaluating the horse
from the side (to assess limb protraction) is as important
as evaluating from the rear (to assess pelvic symmetry).
(Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1031–1036)
Case Description—A 6-month-old male Bactrian camel was examined because of a 3-week history of lameness of the left hind limb.
Clinical Findings—Lameness was initially detected in the left hind limb but resolved and was detected in the right hind limb during treatment. Lameness increased during periods of rapid growth. Radiography revealed multiple small opacities of the medullary cavity of several long bones throughout treatment. Core bone biopsies of lesions in the tibiae revealed lamellar bone with areas of loose connective tissue, osteoblasts in the medullary cavity, and periosteal new bone formation, all which were consistent with panosteitis.
Treatment and Outcome—Palliative treatment was attempted with epidural and transdermal administration of analgesics. Flunixin meglumine was administered PO, which coincided with an abrupt increase in serum creatinine concentration. Performance of multiple diagnostic bone biopsies led to remission of clinical signs of pain.
Clinical Relevance—Panosteitis should be a differential diagnosis for shifting limb lameness in young camels. Bone biopsies can be useful for diagnosis of panosteitis and possible relief of pain associated with the disease. Bactrian camels may be susceptible to the renal toxicity of flunixin meglumine, especially when dehydrated.
OBJECTIVE To estimate costs associated with prevention and treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in preweaned calves on US beef cow–calf operations.
DESIGN Cross-sectional survey.
SAMPLE 43 beef cow–calf producers whose operations had a history of BRD in preweaned calves.
PROCEDURES Mail and electronic surveys were developed and administered to producers in Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota to obtain information regarding costs of BRD prevention and treatment. Descriptive statistics were generated. Mixed linear regression models were used to assess factors associated with the costs of vaccines, medicine, and labor and percentage time spent on prevention and treatment of BRD in cows, replacement heifers, and preweaned calves.
RESULTS 7 mail and 36 electronic surveys were completed. Median annual costs for BRD vaccines were $2.25, $4.00, and $6.25/animal, and median annual labor costs for vaccination were $4.58, $3.00, and $5.00/animal for cows, heifers, and preweaned calves, respectively. Median annual costs for medicine and labor to treat preweaned calves for BRD were $11.00 and $15.00/ affected calf, respectively. Adjusted mean annual BRD vaccine cost for preweaned calves ($7.67/animal) was significantly greater than that for cows ($3.18/animal) and heifers ($4.48/animal).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that labor costs associated with BRD vaccination and treatment were similar to or exceeded the cost of vaccines and medicine, and most of those labor costs were associated with gathering and sorting cattle. Therefore, costs associated with labor as well as medicine and vaccines should be considered during the development of BRD prevention and treatment plans.
Recent state and federal legislative actions and current recommendations from the World Health Organization seem to suggest that, when it comes to antimicrobial stewardship, use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease can be ranked in order of appropriateness, which in turn has led, in some instances, to attempts to limit or specifically oppose the routine use of medically important antimicrobials for prevention of disease. In contrast, the AVMA Committee on Antimicrobials believes that attempts to evaluate the degree of antimicrobial stewardship on the basis of therapeutic intent are misguided and that use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease may comply with the principles of antimicrobial stewardship. It is important that veterinarians and animal caretakers are clear about the reason they may be administering antimicrobials to animals in their care. Concise definitions of prevention, control, and treatment of individuals and populations are necessary to avoid confusion and to help veterinarians clearly communicate their intentions when prescribing or recommending antimicrobial use.
To establish a pathoepidemiological model to evaluate the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 10 companion animals that died while infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the US.
10 cats and dogs that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and died or were euthanized in the US between March 2020 and January 2021.
A standardized algorithm was developed to direct case investigations, determine the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and evaluate the role, if any, that SARS-CoV-2 infection played in the animals’ course of disease and death. Using clinical and diagnostic information collected by state animal health officials, state public health veterinarians, and other state and local partners, this algorithm was applied to each animal case.
SARS-CoV-2 was an incidental finding in 8 animals, was suspected to have contributed to the severity of clinical signs leading to euthanasia in 1 dog, and was the primary reason for death for 1 cat.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
This report provides the global community with a standardized process for directing case investigations, determining the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and determining the clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals with fatal outcomes and provides evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can, in rare circumstances, cause or contribute to death in pets.