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Abstract

Objective—To examine gender differences in initial and long-term salary and practice ownership expectations among first-year veterinary students.

Design—Survey.

Sample—First-year veterinary students at the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine during 2000 through 2003 and 2005 through 2009.

Procedures—A 1-page survey was distributed to students during orientation exercises or on the first day of a first-year course on ethics and jurisprudence. Students were asked to indicate their expected salary at graduation and in 5-year increments after graduation and to indicate whether they expected to own a practice after graduation.

Results—Responses were obtained from 567 female and 120 male students. There was no significant difference in initial salary expectations between male and female students. However, men had higher expectations for salary increases over the course of their career, so that expected salary was significantly higher for men than for women 5 years after graduation and beyond. A significantly greater percentage of men (69/93 [74.2%]) than women (242/499 [48.5%]) indicated they expected to own a practice.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although male and female veterinary students had similar expectations with regard to initial salaries, the male students had higher long-term salary expectations and were more likely to indicate an expectation to become a practice owner. Differences in expectations may lead to differences in behavior when those expectations are or are not met.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To determine the feasibility of performing a single-incision loop colostomy for treatment of grade-3 rectal tears in horses.

Design—

Retrospective case series.

Animals—

Seven adult horses with grade-3 rectal tears.

Procedure—

A single-incision loop colostomy was performed with horses under general anesthesia (n = 6) or while restrained in standing stocks (n = 1). The rectal tear was lavaged via an endoscope. The colostomy was resected after the rectal tear healed.

Results—

Rectal tears ranged from 4 to 10 cm in diameter and were > 25 cm proximal to the anus. All horses survived colostomy surgery. One horse was euthanatized at the request of the owner 1 day after surgery. Six horses underwent colostomy resection 13 to 30 days after colostomy. All horses had evidence of atrophy of the distal portion of the small colon, predisposing to impaction at the small colon anastomosis in 2 horses. One horse was euthanatized while hospitalized because of severe recurrent colic. Five horses were discharged from the hospital 31 to 45 days after admission. One horse was euthanatized 60 months after discharge from the hospital because of severe colic, and 4 horses were alive at the time of follow-up evaluation (3 to 12 months after discharge).

Clinical implications—

The prognosis for horses with grade-3 rectal tears treated by colostomy appears to be favorable.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The assessment of cutaneous microcirculation by laser-Doppler velocimetry (ldv) has been primarily limited to human studies. The purpose of this investigation was to establish normal values in various species and anatomic sites for blood flow, velocity, and volume as determined by ldv. Microcirculation was measured with a laser-Doppler velocimeter in 54 animals, 6 healthy animals from each of 9 species. The standard sites used were the buttocks, convex surface of the ear, metacarpal pad, humeroscapular junction, thoracolumbar junction, ventral portion of the abdomen, dorsal metacarpus (hooved animals), and ventral surface of the tail (horse). Significant differences in blood flow, velocity, and volume were measured between species and sites within species. The ventral portion of the abdomen consistently had the highest relative blood flow across all species except the monkey. Measurements in the canine metacarpal pad had a high sd, possibly indicating the stratum corneum and epidermis to be too thick for ldv. Our findings provide baseline data in several species, with application of ldv in comparative dermatologic research.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A study was conducted to investigate indications for, typical findings during, and outcome of repeat laparotomies in 57 cattle with gastrointestinal disorders. Cattle were grouped according to the reason the initial laparotomy had been performed. Group-1 cattle (n = 46) had had left or right displacement of the abomasum (lda or rda) or right volvulus of the abomasum. Group-2 cattle (n = 10) had had ruminal, reticular, or abomasal obstruction or perforation. Group-3 cattle (n = 7) had had obstruction, volvulus, distention, or perforation of the small or large intestine.

Median interval between laparotomies was 1 month (range, 1 day to 38 months). Intraoperative findings during repeat laparotomy in group-1 cattle included lda (n = 18), rda (9), right volvulus of the abdomen (5), pneumoperitoneum (1), diffuse abdominal adhesions (1), cecal adhesions (1), adhesions of the rumen to the body wall (1), abscess in the cranial portion of the abdomen (1), reticular adhesions (1), localized necrosis (1), and idiopathic rumen distention (1). Intraoperative findings during repeat laparotomy in group-2 cattle included abscess in the cranial portion of the abdomen (4), no abnormalities (1), distended rumen (1), ruptured abomasum (1), recurrent abomasal impaction (1), diffuse abdominal adhesions (1), and pyloric fat necrosis (1). Intraoperative findings during repeat laparotomy in group-3 cattle included lda (3), rda (1), cecal volvulus (1), anastomotic rupture (1), and impacted colocolostomy (1).

Seven cows and 1 calf underwent additional repeat laparotomies. Forty-four (77%) of the 57 cattle were discharged following final laparotomy. Fourteen of the 20 group-1 cattle, 1 of the 6 group-2 cattle, and 2 of the 3 group-3 cattle for which follow-up information was available were productive after repeat laparotomy.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether complete cecal bypass, by jejunocolostomy or ileocolostomy, is an effective treatment for horses with cecal impaction.

Design

Retrospective analysis of medical records.

Animals

9 horses with cecal impaction managed by jejunocolostomy (3) or ileocolostomy (6) performed with or without typhlotomy for evacuation of cecal contents.

Procedure

Information on age, breed, gender, duration of medical treatment, preoperative abnormalities, surgical procedure, and postoperative complications was retrieved from the medical records. Follow-up data were obtained via telephone interview with owners.

Results

6 males and 3 females between 9 and 24 years old (median, 14 years) were included. Five of 9 horses had signs of mild pain associated with reintroduction of food after surgery. All 7 horses for which follow-up information was available were still alive between 7 and 54 months (median, 1.5 years) after surgery.

Clinical Implications

Jejunocolostomy or ileocolostomy resulted in apparently permanent resolution of cecal impaction in these horses and acceptable long-term outcomes. Mild signs of abdominal pain associated with the onset of feeding can be expected in the early postoperative period. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1287–1290)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records of horses that underwent surgical treatment for colic between 1990 and 1992 were reviewed. Horses with a pulse rate of ≥ 60 beats/min or signs of abdominal pain, which were also accompanied by a volume of > 2 L of material that refluxed from the stomach during the postoperative period (excluding horses with anterior enteritis), comprised the postoperative ileus (poi) group. Horses that had < 2 L of material reflux during the postoperative period and survived > 3 days after surgery comprised the reference population. The association of preoperative and intraoperative clinical variables with development of poi was evaluated by use of logistic regression analysis.

Of 148 horses, 117 were assigned to the reference population, and 31 (21%) developed poi. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine that pcv, pulse rate, type and location of lesion detected during surgery, and serum glucose concentration were the most important variables associated with development of poi. Time of recovery from anesthesia to development of poi was 0.5 to 120 hours (median, 13 hours). Duration of poi was 1 to 7 days (median, 1 day). Four of 31 (13%) horses with poi died. Of 148 horses, only 10 (7%) died; however, 4 of the 10 (40%) deaths in the short-term postoperative period were attributable to poi.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The medical records of 17 horses that were evaluated and treated because of colic caused by pedunculated lipomas between 1983 and 1990 were reviewed. The mean age of the horses was 16.6 ± 3.9 years (range, 10 to 26 years), which was significantly greater than that of the population of horses evaluated because of colic (control population) during the same period. There were significantly more geldings (76.5%), compared with the control population.

Nasogastric reflux ranged from 1 to 16 L in 8 horses and was not obtained in 9 horses. Abdominal palpation per rectum revealed small intestinal distention in 13 horses, displaced large colon in 7 horses, and large colon impaction in 2 horses. Peritoneal fluid was abnormal in 11 of 12 horses from which it was obtained successfully.

One horse was euthanatized after unsuccessful medical treatment. Surgery was performed in 16 horses. Lipomas were blindly resected in 5 horses or exteriorized and resected in 6 horses. The method used to resect the lipoma was not recorded in 5 horses. The ileum and/or jejunum was strangulated in 15 horses, the small colon was strangulated in 1 horse, and the jejunum was obstructed in 1 horse. The length of intestine resected ranged from 0.15 to 7.2 m.

Fourteen horses survived surgery, of which 11 were discharged from the hospital (short-term survival rate of 78.6%). Excluding 2 horses lost to follow-up evaluation, 6 of 12 horses that survived surgery were alive 2 to 56 months following surgery (long-term survival rate of 50%), and 9 of 15 horses died or were euthanatized (fatality rate of 60%).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A single preoperative dose of antibiotic proved as effective as a preoperative and 7-day postoperative course in reducing complications following rumenotomy in cattle. Exploratory rumenotomy was performed on 29 healthy Angus steers, which were allotted to the following treatment groups: (1) no antibiotic therapy, (2) single-dose, preoperative, antibiotic prophylaxis, using potassium penicillin G, and (3) preoperative potassium penicillin G prophylaxis, followed by a 7-day postoperative course of procaine penicillin G. Steers receiving antibiotics had significantly greater postoperative feed intake, lower rectal temperatures, and fewer abscesses at the surgical site than those receiving no antibiotics. There was no significant difference between animals receiving a single preoperative dose of antibiotic and those treated for an additional 7 days after surgery. In human medicine, it is generally agreed that a single preoperative dose of antibiotic offers effective prophylaxis. There are few published reports on antimicrobial prophylaxis in the veterinary literature, particularly in regard to large animals. Considering USDA requirements for milk withholding times and withdrawal times prior to slaughter for food animals receiving antibiotics, the findings of this study have medical as well as economic value.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association