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  • Author or Editor: David E. Lee x
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Abstract

Objective—To compare the trotting gaits of Labrador Retrievers and Greyhounds to determine whether differences in locomotion are attributable to differences in their manner of moving or to body size and shape differences between these 2 breeds.

Animals—8 healthy 5-month-old Greyhounds and 5 healthy Labrador Retrievers between 6 and 18 months old.

Procedure—A series of 4 force platforms was used to record independent ground reaction forces on the forelimbs and hind limbs during trotting. Values of stride parameters were compared between breeds before and after normalization for size differences. Standard values of absolute and normalized stride period and stride length were determined from linear regressions of these parameters on relative (normalized) velocity. Forces were normalized to body weight and compared at the same relative velocity.

Results—Greyhounds used fewer, longer strides than the Labrador Retrievers to travel at the same absolute speed. After normalization for body size differences, most measurable differences between breeds were eliminated. Subtle differences that did persist related to proportion of the stride that the forefoot was in contact with the ground, timing of initial hind foot contact relative to initial forefoot contact, and distribution of vertical force between the forelimbs and hind limbs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that apparent differences in the trotting gait between Labrador Retrievers and Greyhounds are mainly attributable to differences in size, and that dogs of these 2 breeds move in a dynamically similar manner at the trot. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61: 832–838)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effectiveness of 4% peroxymonosulfate disinfectant applied as a mist to surfaces in a large animal hospital as measured by recovery of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

Design—Field trial.

Sample Population—Polyester transparencies inoculated with bacteria.

Procedure—Polyester transparencies were inoculated with S aureus or S Typhimurium and placed in various locations in the hospital. After mist application of the peroxygen disinfectant, viable bacterial numbers were quantified and compared with growth from control transparencies to assess reduction in bacterial count.

Results—When applied as a mist directed at environmental surfaces contaminated with a geometric mean of 4.03 × 107 CFUs of S aureus (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.95 × 107 to 4.11 × 107) or 6.17 × 106 CFUs of S Typhimurium (95% CI, 5.55 × 106 to 6.86 × 106), 4% peroxymonosulfate reduced the geometric mean number of viable S aureus by 3.04 × 107 CFUs (95% CI, 8.6 × 105 to 1.7 × 106) and S Typhimurium by 3.97 × 106 CFUs (95% CI, 8.6 × 105 to 3.5 × 106).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Environmental disinfection with directed mist application of a 4% peroxymonosulfate solution was successful in reducing counts of bacterial CFUs by > 99.9999%. Directed mist application with this peroxygen disinfectant as evaluated in this study appeared to be an effective and efficient means of environmental disinfection in a large animal veterinary hospital and would be less disruptive than more traditional approaches to intensive environmental cleaning and disinfection. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:597–602)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To investigate individual- and community-level contextual variables as risk factors for submission of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths or magnesium ammonium phosphate (ie, struvite) uroliths for dogs to a national urolith center, as determined on the basis of urolith submission patterns.

Sample Population—Records of 7,297 dogs from Ontario, Canada, with CaOx or struvite uroliths submitted to the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre from 1998 through 2006.

Procedures—Data were analyzed via multilevel multivariable logistic regression.

Results—Individual-level main effects and interactions significantly associated with the risk of submission of CaOx uroliths rather than struvite uroliths included age, sex, breed group, neuter status, body condition, dietary moisture content, diet type, sex-neuter status interaction, sex-age interaction, body condition-age interaction, and breed group—dietary moisture content interaction. In addition, median community family income and being located within a major urban center (ie, Toronto) were significant risk factors for submission of CaOx uroliths, compared with submission of struvite uroliths.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Individual-level and dietary factors for dogs affected the risk of submission of CaOx uroliths, relative to that of struvite uroliths. Interactions among these variables need to be considered when assessing the impact of these risk factors. In addition, community-level or contextual factors (such as community family income and residing in a densely populated area of Ontario) also affected submission patterns, although most of the variance in the risk for submission of CaOx uroliths, compared with the risk for submission of struvite uroliths, was explained by individual-level factors. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1045–1054)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the feasibility of training veterinary medicine students to perform laparoscopic versus conventional open ovariectomy in live dogs.

Design—Randomized prospective parallel-group experiment.

Population—25 students completing the second year of their veterinary curriculum.

Procedures—Students were randomly assigned to 2 groups to receive 14 hours of specific training in either open ovariectomy (n = 13) or laparoscopic ovariectomy (12). Confidence, basic surgical skills, and basic laparoscopic skills were evaluated before and after training, prior to live surgical procedures.

Results—Scores related to basic surgical skills were high in both groups and did not improve with either training program. Before live animal surgeries, student confidence and basic laparoscopic skills improved after training in laparoscopic ovariectomy and were higher than after training in open ovariectomy. Surgery time was higher for the students who received training in laparoscopic ovariectomy (129 minutes; range, 84 to 143 minutes), compared with students who received training in open ovariectomy (80 minutes; range, 62 to 117 minutes). On a 55-point scoring system, ovariectomy scores were similar between students who received training in open ovariectomy (34.5; range, 16.5 to 45) and students who received training in laparoscopic ovariectomy (34.5; range, 25 to 44.5).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The training programs were effective in improving student confidence and skills in laparoscopic ovariectomy. Results of this study suggested that veterinary medical students, with assistance from an instructor, may be taught to perform laparoscopic ovariectomies with performance equivalent to that for students performing open ovariectomies.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of footwear hygiene protocols on bacterial contamination of floor surfaces in an equine hospital.

Design—Field trial.

Procedures—Footwear hygiene protocols evaluated included use of rubber overboots with footbaths and footmats containing a quaternary ammonium disinfectant, rubber overboots with footbaths and footmats containing a peroxygen disinfectant, and no restrictions on footwear type but mandatory use of footbaths and footmats containing a peroxygen disinfectant. Nonspecific aerobic bacterial counts were determined via 2 procedures for sample collection and bacterial enumeration (contact plates vs swabbing combined with use of spread plates), and the effects of each footwear hygiene protocol were compared.

Results—There were no consistent findings suggesting that any of the protocols were associated with differences in numbers of bacteria recovered from floor surfaces. Although there were detectable differences in numbers of bacteria recovered in association with different footwear hygiene protocols, differences in least square mean bacterial counts did not appear to be clinically relevant (ie, were < 1 log10).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although cleaning and disinfection of footwear are important aids in reducing the risk of nosocomial transmission of infectious agents in veterinary hospitals, the numbers of aerobic bacteria recovered from floor surfaces were not affected by use of rubber overboots or the types of disinfectant used in this study. Further study is warranted to evaluate the usefulness of footwear hygiene practices relative to their efficacy for reducing transmission of specific pathogens or decreasing nosocomial disease risk.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the lowest dose of cosyntropin on a per body weight basis that would produce maximal cortisol and aldosterone secretion and the ideal timing of blood sample collection after ACTH stimulation in healthy cats.

Design—Randomized crossover trial.

Animals—7 adult sexually intact male purpose-bred cats.

Procedures—Each cat received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control) and 5 doses (125 μg/cat and 10, 5, 2.5, and 1 μg/kg [4.54, 2.27, 1.14, and 0.45 μg/lb]) of cosyntropin IV with a 2-week washout period between treatments. Blood samples were obtained before (baseline) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes after administration of saline solution or cosyntropin.

Results—Serum cortisol and aldosterone concentration increased significantly, compared with baseline values, after administration of all cosyntropin doses. Lower doses of cosyntropin resulted in an adrenocortical response equivalent to the traditional dose of 125 μg/cat. The lowest doses of cosyntropin that stimulated a maximal cortisol and aldosterone response were 5 and 2.5 μg/kg, respectively. Lower doses of cosyntropin resulted in a shorter interval between IV administration of cosyntropin and peak serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Low-dose ACTH stimulation testing with IV administration of cosyntropin at 5 μg/kg followed by blood sample collection at 60 to 75 minutes resulted in concurrent peak serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations that were equivalent to those achieved following administration of cosyntropin at 125 μg/cat, the standard dose currently used.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association