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To compare perceptions related to veterinary anesthesiologist involvement with anesthesia and pain management, benefits of a preanesthetic consultation (PAC) with an anesthesiologist, and quality of patient care between clients who did and did not participate in a PAC prior to their dogs’ elective orthopedic surgery.


80 dog owners.


Owners of dogs undergoing elective stifle joint surgery participated in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to PAC and control groups (n = 40 participants/group). The PAC group participated in a PAC with an anesthesiologist and completed a written survey (12 items with Likert-type response options). The control group completed a similar survey (identical except for 2 statements related to the PAC experience) without participating in a PAC. Results were compared between groups by statistical methods.


The proportion of clients in the PAC group who strongly agreed with the statements that a PAC was beneficial, their questions about the pet's anesthesia and pain management plan were answered, they knew who would perform anesthesia and what safeguards were in place, veterinary specialty hospitals should have an anesthesiologist on staff, they were willing to pay more to have an anesthesiologist supervise the anesthesia and pain management, and a PAC with an anesthesiologist should be standard of care in veterinary medicine was greater than that for control group clients. Responses to quality-of-care items did not differ between groups.


Participating in a PAC was associated with more positive perceptions of anesthesiologists and knowledge about the anesthesia plan. Further research with a validated survey instrument is needed to confirm these findings.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To compare the feasibility of training veterinary medicine students to perform laparoscopic versus conventional open ovariectomy in live dogs.

Design—Randomized prospective parallel-group experiment.

Population—25 students completing the second year of their veterinary curriculum.

Procedures—Students were randomly assigned to 2 groups to receive 14 hours of specific training in either open ovariectomy (n = 13) or laparoscopic ovariectomy (12). Confidence, basic surgical skills, and basic laparoscopic skills were evaluated before and after training, prior to live surgical procedures.

Results—Scores related to basic surgical skills were high in both groups and did not improve with either training program. Before live animal surgeries, student confidence and basic laparoscopic skills improved after training in laparoscopic ovariectomy and were higher than after training in open ovariectomy. Surgery time was higher for the students who received training in laparoscopic ovariectomy (129 minutes; range, 84 to 143 minutes), compared with students who received training in open ovariectomy (80 minutes; range, 62 to 117 minutes). On a 55-point scoring system, ovariectomy scores were similar between students who received training in open ovariectomy (34.5; range, 16.5 to 45) and students who received training in laparoscopic ovariectomy (34.5; range, 25 to 44.5).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The training programs were effective in improving student confidence and skills in laparoscopic ovariectomy. Results of this study suggested that veterinary medical students, with assistance from an instructor, may be taught to perform laparoscopic ovariectomies with performance equivalent to that for students performing open ovariectomies.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To assess the heritability of pancreatic acinar atrophy (PAA) in German Shepherd Dogs (GSDs) in the United States.

Animals—135 GSDs belonging to 2 multigenerational pedigrees.

Procedure—Two multigenerational pedigrees of GSDs with family members with PAA were identified. The clinical history of each GSD enrolled in the study was recorded, and serum samples for canine trypsinlike immunoreactivity (cTLI) analysis were collected from 102 dogs. Dogs with a serum cTLI concentration ≤ 2.0 µg/L were considered to have exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) and were assumed to have PAA.

Results—Pedigree I consisted of 59 dogs and pedigree II of 76 dogs. Serum cTLI concentrations were measured in 48 dogs from pedigree I and 54 dogs from pedigree II. A total of 19 dogs (14.1%) were determined to have EPI, 9 in pedigree I (15.3%) and 10 in pedigree II (13.6%). Of the 19 dogs with EPI, 8 were male and 11 were female.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Evaluation of data by complex segregation analysis is strongly suggestive of an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance for EPI in GSDs in the United States. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1429–1434)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE: To determine the intracoelemic (ICe) dose of alfaxalone required to induce loss of righting reflex (LRR) in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) and to evaluate the tactile stimulus response in unanesthetized and alfaxalone-anesthetized snakes.

ANIMALS: 8 healthy mature garter snakes.

PROCEDURES: During the first of 3 phases, snakes received each of 3 doses (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) of alfaxalone, ICe, with a 2-week washout period between treatments. Times to LRR and return of righting reflex were determined after each dose. During phase 2, unanesthetized snakes underwent tactile stimulation testing with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments once daily for 3 consecutive days to determine the baseline tactile pressure required to elicit purposeful movement. During phase 3, snakes were anesthetized with alfaxalone (30 mg/kg, ICe), and the tactile pressure required to induce purposeful movement was assessed at predetermined times after LRR.

RESULTS: Intracoelomic administration of alfaxalone at doses of 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg induced LRR in 0, 5, and 8 snakes, respectively. For snakes with LRR, median time to LRR following the 30-mg/kg dose (3.8 minutes) was significantly shorter than that following the 20-mg/kg dose (8.3 minutes); median time to return of righting reflex did not differ between the 2 doses. Mean ± SD tactile pressure that resulted in purposeful movement in unanesthetized snakes was 16.9 ± 14.3 g. When snakes were anesthetized, the mean tactile pressure that resulted in purposeful movement was significantly increased from baseline at 10, 20, and 30 minutes after LRR.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested ICe administration of alfaxalone might be effective for anesthetizing garter snakes.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To evaluate agreement among diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia for scores determined by use of a simple descriptive scale (SDS) or a composite grading scale (CGS) for quality of recovery of horses from anesthesia and to investigate use of 3-axis accelerometry (3AA) for objective evaluation of recovery.

ANIMALS 12 healthy adult horses.

PROCEDURES Horses were fitted with a 3AA device and then were anesthetized. Eight diplomates evaluated recovery by use of an SDS, and 7 other diplomates evaluated recovery by use of a CGS. Agreement was tested with κ and AC1 statistics for the SDS and an ANOVA for the CGS. A library of mathematical models was used to map 3AA data against CGS scores.

RESULTS Agreement among diplomates using the SDS was slight (κ = 0.19; AC1 = 0.22). The CGS scores differed significantly among diplomates. Best fit of 3AA data against CGS scores yielded the following equation: RS = 9.998 × SG0.633 × ∑UG0.174, where RS is a horse's recovery score determined with 3AA, SG is acceleration of the successful attempt to stand, and ∑UG is the sum of accelerations of unsuccessful attempts to stand.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Subjective scoring of recovery of horses from anesthesia resulted in poor agreement among diplomates. Subjective scoring may lead to differences in conclusions about recovery quality; thus, there is a need for an objective scoring method. The 3AA system removed subjective bias in evaluations of recovery of horses and warrants further study.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research