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Abstract

Objective—To determine in vitro effects of PBSS, milk, and bacteria-contaminated milk (BCM; contaminated by Streptococcus agalactiae) on properties of 3 synthetic absorbable suture materials.

Sample Population—3 types of synthetic absorbable suture materials (poliglecaprone 25, polyglycolic acid, and polydioxanone).

Procedures—Suture materials were tested to determine breaking strength and elasticity before (day 0) and after incubation in 3 media (PBSS, milk, and BCM) for 7, 14, and 21 days. A loop of suture material was elongated at a rate of 60 mm/min until it reached the breaking point. Tensile properties were statistically analyzed among media and incubation times.

Results—Incubation in milk and BCM significantly decreased breaking strength and elasticity of poliglecaprone 25, compared with results for incubation in PBSS. Incubation in BCM significantly decreased tensile properties of polyglycolic acid suture, compared with results for incubation in PBSS and milk. After incubation for 21 days, tensile properties of polydioxanone did not differ significantly among the media but were significantly decreased from values on day 0.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of this study, poliglecaprone 25 is an inappropriate suture material for use in teat surgery. Polyglycolic acid suture should be avoided in teats of cattle with mastitis. Of the suture materials tested, polydioxanone was best suited for use in teat surgery, as determined on the basis of material testing after incubation in milk, even when the milk was contaminated with bacteria.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine changes in results of selected serum biochemical tests after a single percutaneous liver biopsy and changes in results of hematologic and selected serum biochemical tests after multiple percutaneous liver biopsies in alpacas and llamas.

Animals

5 llamas and 10 alpacas.

Procedure

A single percutaneous liver biopsy was performed in 5 llamas and 6 alpacas. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 3 days after liver biopsy, and submitted for serum biochemical analysis. In the other 4 alpacas, liver biopsy was performed on day 0 and then weekly for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected at the time of each biopsy, and CBC and serum biochemical analyses were performed. Attitude and appetite of all animals were evaluated daily.

Results

None of the animals developed clinically apparent adverse effects. A mild decrease in sorbitol dehydrogenase activity was detected in animals that underwent a single liver biopsy, and mild decreases in plasma protein and albumin concentrations were detected in animals that underwent multiple biopsies. Other significant changes were not detected.

Conclusions

Results of this study suggest that liver biopsy is safe in healthy llamas and alpacas and that, if necessary, multiple weekly liver biopsies can be performed safely in healthy alpacas. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1423–1425)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The association between ocular squamous cell tumors and various measures of solar radiation was evaluated for 2,775 contemporaneous Hereford cattle. The animals were from 34 herds located in 21 states in the United States and in one Canadian province. Examinations and photographs were made of the eyes of all cows and heifers in a herd; 33 herds were examined between June and August 1957 and 1 herd was examined in 1958. Solar radiation was measured by altitude and mean annual hours of sunshine applying to an individual herd, and global radiation, a cloudiness index, and elevation of nearby National Weather Service stations. All measures of solar radiation provided evidence of a significant association between increasing risks of developing cancer eye and increasing levels of radiation; adjustments were made for possible confounding effects of age and corneoscleral pigmentation. Associations were evident whether affliction was defined as the occurrence of any type of tumor (ie, plaque, papilloma, or carcinoma), or as the occurrence of only papilloma or carcinoma. Average ages of affected cattle also tended to be lower at high radiation levels than at low levels, further supporting the hypothesis that solar radiation has an important role in the development of this disease. In view of the heritability of eye pigmentation and its inhibitory effect on lesions, cancer eye may be controlled by selective breeding for increased pigmentation in and around the eye to afford protection against the harmful effects of incident uv radiation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—5 calves were evaluated for abnormal respiratory noise associated with variable degrees of respiratory distress.

Clinical Findings—Tachypnea and inspiratory dyspnea were detected at initial evaluation in all calves. Endoscopic evaluation of the upper respiratory tract revealed enlarged and immobile arytenoids. Radiographic (n = 3) and computed tomographic (1) evaluation of the laryngeal area revealed images that were indicative of a large soft tissue mass at the level of the arytenoids obstructing the rima glottis. A presumptive diagnosis of arytenoid chondritis was made.

Treatment and Outcome—A tracheostomy tube was placed in all calves. Medical treatment (with antimicrobials and anti-inflammatory drugs) was attempted in 4 calves after initial evaluation. Unilateral arytenoidectomy via a laryngotomy was performed under general anesthesia in all calves. Dysphagia and coughing were the most frequent postoperative complications. Three calves survived at least 6 months after the procedure. One calf died of a perforated abomasal ulcer 3 months after the surgery. Another calf died suddenly 1 month after the surgery of an undetermined cause.

Clinical Relevance—Unilateral arytenoidectomy was a viable surgical treatment for arytenoid chondritis in calves. Further research in a larger number of affected cattle is needed to determine the advantages or disadvantages of this procedure over other surgical techniques.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine features, outcome, and complications of surgical treatment of camelid tooth root abscesses.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—123 camelids with tooth root abscesses.

Procedures—Signalment, history, teeth involved, surgery performed, ancillary diagnostic tests, and short-term complications were recorded from each medical record. An owner questionnaire was used to obtain long-term (> 1 year) follow-up information.

Results—The most common surgical treatments included tooth extraction (n = 106) and apicoectomy (13). Owners provided follow-up information on 84 animals. Postoperative complications were reported in 42 of 84 animals. The most common complications included reinfection (n = 15), chronic draining tract (14), and osteomyelitis (14). Significantly more camelids that were in good or obese body condition at the time of surgery were alive at the time of follow-up, compared with those with thin body condition at the time of surgery. Camelids with 2 teeth extracted had significantly more complications than those with 1 tooth extracted. Thirty-four of 47 owners reported that they were completely satisfied with the outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Owners of camelids in poor body condition should be forewarned that such animals are at greater risk for complications following dental surgery. Clinicians should recognize that the number of teeth affected was not associated with a poorer outcome.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association