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Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

3 neonatal female calves (ages, < 1 to 4 days) were examined because of mandibular trauma.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Physical examination indicated that each calf had an open fracture of the mandibular pars incisiva (rostral mandibular fracture) with ventral displacement of the incisors at the affected region. Oral radiographs were obtained for 1 calf and revealed that 5 incisors were fractured at the level of the apical dental buds.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Each calf was anesthetized. The fracture site and surrounding tissues were surgically debrided and flushed with sterile 0.05% chlorhexidine solution. The laceration in the oral mucosa was closed with absorbable suture in an interrupted horizontal mattress pattern. Additionally, a Penrose drain was placed during primary closure and removed 4 days later in 1 calf. The fractured incisors were removed during primary debridement in another calf. All calves received perioperative antimicrobials and analgesics. One calf developed mild osteomyelitis of the rostral mandible, which resolved with additional surgical debridement and antimicrobial treatment. That calf and another developed mild brachygnathia. At the time of last follow-up (3 to 13 months after hospital discharge), all 3 calves were eating and growing as expected.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

3 calves with open rostral mandibular fractures were successfully managed by surgical debridement and primary closure of the oral laceration. The procedure was easy to perform, did not require specialized equipment, and was less expensive than other repair methods. This procedure may be an effective and economic on-farm treatment alternative for calves with rostral mandibular fractures.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To analyze the transit time from various locations in the intestines of cows with cecal dilatation-dislocation (CDD), healthy control cows, and cows with left displacement of the abomasum (LDA).

ANIMALS 15 cows with naturally occurring CDD (group 1), 14 healthy control cows (group 2), and 18 cows with LDA (group 3).

PROCEDURES 5 electronic transmitters were encased in capsules and placed in the lumen of the ileum, cecum, proximal portion of the colon, and 2 locations in the spiral colon (colon 1 and colon 2) and used to measure the transit time (ie, time between placement in the lumen and excretion of the capsules from the rectum). Excretion time of the capsules from each intestinal segment was compared among groups.

RESULTS Cows recovered well from surgery, except for 1 cow with relapse of CDD 4 days after surgery and 2 cows with incisional infection. High variability in capsule excretion times was observed for all examined intestinal segments in all groups. Significant differences were detected for the excretion time from the colon (greater in cows with CDD than in healthy control cows) and cecum (less in cows with LDA than in cows of the other 2 groups).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The technique developed to measure excretion time of capsules from bovine intestines was safe and reliable; however, the large variability observed for all intestinal segments and all groups would appear to be a limitation for its use in assessment of intestinal transit time of cattle in future studies.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research