Objectives—To measure urine concentrations of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), determine optimal storage conditions for urine samples, establish a reference range, and determine whether there is correlation between 24-hour total urine GAG excretion and the GAG-to-creatinine ratio (GCR).
Animals—14 healthy adult dogs.
Procedure—Single urine sample GAG concentrations and GCRs were measured in samples collected from 14 healthy dogs at the start of the 24-hour collection period. Twenty-four–hour total urine GAG excretions were determined from urine collected during a 24-hour period in the same 14 dogs. Total sulfated GAG concentrations were also measured in urine from these dogs after the urine had been stored at 4°C and -20°C for 1, 7, and 30 days.
Results—Urine GAG concentrations were not significantly different from baseline values after urine was stored at 4°C for up to 1 day and -20°C for up to 30 days. Neither single urine sample GAG concentration (R, 0.422) nor GCR (R, 0.084) was an adequate predictor of 24-hour total urine GAG excretion.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study provide data that can be used to establish a reference range for 24-hour total urine GAG excretion in dogs and adequate conditions for sample storage. Contrary to findings in humans, there was no significant linear correlation between 24-hour total urine GAG excretion and single urine sample GCR in dogs, limiting clinical use of the single urine sample test.
Objective—To determine the effects of oral prednisone administration with or without ultralow-dose acetylsalicylic acid on coagulation parameters in healthy dogs and to assess intraindividual variation in thromboelastography results.
Animals—14 healthy research dogs and 10 healthy client-owned dogs.
Procedures—In a randomized controlled trial, research dogs underwent thromboelastography twice (3 days apart), and intraindividual variation in test results was calculated. Dogs were given prednisone (2 mg/kg/d, PO) plus acetylsalicylic acid (0.5 mg/kg/d, PO) or prednisone (2 mg/kg/d, PO) plus a placebo for 14 days, after which thromboelastography and other tests were repeated. Differences from preadministration (baseline) test results between and within groups were compared. In a separate trial, client-owned dogs also underwent thromboelastography twice 2 days apart to assess intraindividual variation in untreated dogs.
Results—Intraindividual variation in thromboelastography results for research dogs was ≤ 10% for maximum amplitude (MA) and α angle. In the research dogs, MA and fibrinogen values significantly increased from baseline, whereas percentage lysis 30 minutes after attainment of the MA as well as antithrombin activity significantly decreased within each group. In the dogs that received prednisone plus a placebo, percentage lysis 60 minutes after attainment of the MA was significantly lower than at baseline. For all parameters for research dogs, there was no difference between groups for change from baseline. Intraindividual variation in findings for client-owned dogs was similar to the variation for research dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prednisone administration resulted in hypercoagulability in healthy dogs as indicated by an increase in MA and plasma fibrinogen concentration and a decrease in antithrombin activity. Concurrent ultralow-dose acetylsalicylic acid use had no effect on measured thromboelastography values. The high intraindividual variation in some thromboelastography parameters may preclude routine use of this technique in clinical practice.
Objective—To determine the effectiveness of cystotomy for complete removal of urocystoliths and urethroliths in dogs, the types and frequency of diagnostic imaging performed to verify complete urolith removal, the complications that develop as a result of cystotomy, and predictors of each of these variables.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—128 dogs that underwent a cystotomy for removal of urocystoliths, urethroliths, or both from 1994 through 2006.
Procedures—The following data were obtained from medical records: sex, body weight, number and locations of lower urinary tract uroliths identified in preoperative and postoperative imaging reports, types of imaging used for urolith detection, number of uroliths recovered during cystotomy, quantitative urolith composition, and major complications attributable to cystotomy. Objective criteria were applied to determine whether a cystotomy failed or succeeded and whether appropriate imaging was performed. Associations between potential prognostic factors and outcomes were statistically assessed.
Results—Effectiveness of cystotomy could be determined in 44 (34%) dogs, of which 9 (20%) had incomplete removal of uroliths. Appropriate postoperative imaging was performed for only 19 (15%) dogs, of which 8 had incomplete removal. Dogs with both urethroliths and urocystoliths were more likely to have a failed cystotomy than dogs with only urethroliths or urocystoliths. Complications developed in 5 (4%) dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cystotomy was a safe and effective surgical procedure for removal of lower urinary tract uroliths in most dogs. Failure to remove all uroliths occurred in a substantial percentage of patients.
Objective—To determine clinical features, diagnostic
imaging abnormalities, underlying disease, disease
progression, and outcome in dogs with bilateral cavernous
Procedure—Dogs were included if clinical signs consistent
with bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome (ie,
deficits of the third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerves
and at least 1 of the first 2 branches of the fifth cranial
nerve) were present and a lesion of the cavernous
sinus was identified by means of diagnostic imaging
or postmortem examination.
Results—5 dogs were evaluated because of problems
referable to abnormal ocular motility or pupillomotor
dysfunction, and 1 dog was evaluated because
of partial motor seizures involving the face and bilateral
mydriasis. Four dogs had neurologic signs referable
to an extrasinusoidal lesion at the time of initial
examination, and the remaining 2 dogs eventually
developed extrasinusoidal signs. Besides neuroanatomic
location, the only consistent neuroimaging
feature was variably intense, heterogeneous
enhancement of cavernous sinus lesions. Neoplasia
was histologically confirmed as the underlying cause
in 5 of the dogs and was suspected in the remaining
dog. Median survival time for the 4 dogs that were
treated was 199 days (range, 16 to 392 days).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome is rare in
dogs but should be suspected in dogs with compatible
clinical signs. Affected dogs have a poor prognosis, and
dogs with clinical signs of bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome
should be systematically evaluated for neoplastic
disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1105–1111)