The economic literature on veterinary technicians is limited, and the AVMA Task Force on Veterinary Technician Utilization has recommended increasing veterinary technician economic research in several areas. The aim of this review was to provide an economic overview of the veterinary technician profession based on intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Data sources for this paper include articles and texts from the veterinary, human medical, and service industries concerning veterinary technicians and from economic and psychology literature. Findings of this literature review indicated that veterinary technician intrinsic and extrinsic rewards are complex. Veterinary technicians appear to find value and meaning in their job tasks, which contribute positively toward job satisfaction and self-identity. Low financial rewards, workplace incivility, and work overload appear to be problematic for the individual veterinary technician, veterinary technician profession, and veterinary industry as a whole. The economic and psychology literature indicated that changes to the profession, such as increasing veterinary technician utilization, should simultaneously incorporate the economic needs and values of veterinary technicians and veterinary practice operators.