Objective—To identify Actinobacillus spp isolates recovered from fetuses and pericardial fluid from horses affected with mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS) and determine whether these bacterial species are the same as those isolated from clinically normal horses.
Sample Population—Isolates of actinobacilli recovered from 18 horses with pericarditis and 109 fetuses aborted by mares affected by MRLS.
Procedures—Actinobacillus spp isolates were identified to the level of species or subspecies by use of conventional phenotypic tests and biochemical and enzyme test kits. The 16S rRNA gene from selected isolates was amplified, purified, and sequenced. Sequence data were compared with sequence data for actinobacilli in GenBank.
Results—Of the 109 isolates obtained from fetuses, 14 were Actinobacillus equuli subsp equuli, 65 were A equuli subsp haemolyticus, 28 were Bisgaard taxon 10–like bacterium, and 2 were Actinobacillus genomospecies 1. Of the 18 isolates from horses with pericarditis, 4 were A equuli subsp equuli, 13 were A equuli subsp haemolyticus, and 1 was Bisgaard taxon 10–like bacterium. Comparisons with published data and GenBank data revealed that the isolates recovered from horses with MRLS were the same as those isolated from the oral cavity or alimentary tract of healthy horses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Actinobacillus spp isolates recovered from fetuses and pericardial fluid samples of horses affected by MRLS in 2001 to 2003 were identical to Actinobacillus spp found in the oral cavity and alimentary tracts of healthy horses.
Objective—To determine the extent of leptospirosis
in persons exposed to infected swine, confirm the
source of disease, define risk factors for infection,
and identify means for preventing additional infections
during an outbreak in Missouri in 1998.
Sample Population—240 people and 1,700 pigs.
Procedure—An epidemiologic investigation was conducted
of people exposed to infected pigs from the
University of Missouri-Columbia swine herd. The investigation
included review of health of the pigs, a crosssectional
study of the people handling the pigs, serologic
testing of human and porcine sera, and risk-factor
analysis for leptospirosis within the human population.
Results—Serologic testing of samples collected at the
time of the investigation indicated that 59% of the pigs
had titers to leptospires, denoting exposure. Of the
240 people in the exposed study population, 163 (68%)
were interviewed, and of these, 110 (67%) submitted a
blood sample. Nine (8%) cases of leptospirosis were
confirmed by serologic testing. Risk factors associated
with leptospirosis included smoking (odds ratio [OR],
14.4; 95% confidence interval [CI],1.39 to 137.74) and
drinking beverages (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.04 to 24.30)
while working with infected pigs. Washing hands after
work was protective (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.81).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Leptospirosis
is a risk for swine producers and slaughterhouse
workers, and may be prevented through appropriate
hygiene, sanitation, and animal husbandry. It is essential
to educate people working with animals or animal
tissues about measures for reducing the risk of exposure
to zoonotic pathogens. (J Am Vet Med Assoc