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Abstract

Objective—To compare surgical site infection and inflammation rates between the use of nonimpregnated (polydioxanone and poliglecaprone 25) versus triclosan-impregnated (polydioxanone and poliglecaprone 25) suture for incisional closure in dogs undergoing a standardized orthopedic procedure (tibial plateau leveling osteotomy [TPLO]).

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—283 dogs that underwent TPLO between November 2005 and December 2009.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for age; body weight; body condition score; use of propofol; perioperative and postoperative administration of antimicrobials; presence of a preoperative infection; use of a jig; technique of joint exploration; type of suture material (triclosan impregnated vs nonimpregnated) used to close the pes anserinus, subcutaneous layer, and subcuticular layer; use of staples or suture to close the skin; and surgery and anesthesia durations. The outcome variables were surgical site inflammation and infection.

Results—Rates of infection and inflammation did not differ between surgeries for which triclosan-impregnated suture was used (n = 159 [8.8%, and 18.8%, respectively]) and those for which nonimpregnated suture was used (112 [10.7% and 15.2%, respectively]). The use of staples, compared with suture, to close the skin significantly decreased the inflammation rate.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Compared with in vitro conditions, in vivo conditions (where the environment is not controlled and triclosan may elute more quickly from the suture) may decrease the antibacterial effectiveness of triclosan-impregnated suture. On the basis of our findings, triclosan-impregnated sutures did not seem to provide an additional benefit for clinical use and cannot be strongly recommended for elective orthopedic procedures in veterinary medicine.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of a force plate as a method for objective gait analysis in adult poultry, to characterize ground reaction forces (GRFs) produced in adult chickens during normal walking, and to assess the variability of GRFs.

Animals—18 clinically normal 5-month-old Brown Leghorn hens

Procedure—Vertical, craniocaudal, and mediolateral GRFs were measured as hens walked across a standard force plate embedded in the middle of a runway.

Results—All GRFs were significantly affected by speed, and variability was high. With increasing speed, overall stance time decreased, but the percentage of stance time spent in braking or propulsion remained approximately equal. There was an overall increase in maximum propulsion force, which was produced at a greater rate over a shorter time; thus, propulsion integral decreased. Maximum braking forces and braking integrals were variable, but the rate at which the forces were generated increased. Mediolateral forces were 2 to 3 times greater in hens than values that have been reported for other species.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—A standard force plate can be used to objectively measure GRFs in walking adult hens; however, the large variation in the data suggests that the technique in its current form would be of limited clinical use. Overall, vertical and craniocaudal forces had similar characteristics to those of other species, whereas mediolateral forces were found to be much greater in chickens than for other species. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:76–82)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical signs, laboratory findings, relationship to vaccination, and response to treatment for type I immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA) in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—39 dogs.

Procedure—Clinical records and radiographic reports from 3 university referral hospitals were reviewed. Clinical signs, laboratory and investigative findings, relationship to vaccination, and response to treatment were evaluated.

Results—Clinical signs and initial laboratory and clinical investigative findings were frequently abnormal but were nonspecific and not associated with likelihood of recovery. Time of vaccination was not associated with onset of disease. Chemotherapeutic immunosuppression resulted in complete cure in 56% of dogs. Continuous medication was required in 18% (7/39) of dogs, relapses were treated successfully in 13% (5/39) of dogs, and 15% (6/39) of dogs died or were euthanatized as a result of disease.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The possible involvement of vaccination in type I IMPA was not made clear from this study because of the small population size. Signalment, clinical signs, and results of diagnostic tests other than multiple synovial fluid analyses were generally nonspecific. Most dogs with type I IMPA responded to initial immunosuppressive treatment, but 31% (12/39) of dogs relapsed, required further treatment, or both. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1323–1327)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine the clinical manifestations, morbidity, mortality, and treatment methods for rattlesnake venom poisoning in horses.

Design

Retrospective analysis of medical records.

Animals

27 horses with acute venom poisoning attributable to prairie rattlesnakes, and 5 with chronic problems subsequent to a rattlesnake bite.

Results

Most horses were bitten on or near the muzzle while on pasture, resulting in head swelling, dyspnea, and epistaxis. Additional manifestations of acute poisoning included fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, cardiac arrhythmia, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, hemorrhage, thrombosis of venipuncture sites, colic, diarrhea, and prehensile and masticatory dysfunction. Chronic problems included cardiac disease, pneumonia, laminitis, pharyngeal paralysis, and wound complications. The most common chronic problem was cardiac disease. The most commonly used treatments were antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tetanus prophylaxis, and airway support. Mortality in the 27 acutely affected horses was 18.5%; the overall mortality was 25%.

Clinical Implications

Horses bitten by prairie rattlesnakes may develop multiple, often severe, acute or chronic manifestations of poisoning involving various organ systems. Thorough clinical evaluation, effective treatment, supportive care, and close observation are indicated in horses with rattlesnake venom poisoning. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:1866-1871)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate efficacy of florfenicol treatment for bovine mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, nonagalactiae streptococci, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp, and others.

Design

Double blind study with cases randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups.

Sample Population

861 cows/10 commercial dairy farms.

Procedures

Experimental (750 mg of florfenicol) or control (200 mg of cloxacillin) treatment was administered by intramammary infusion every 12 hours for 3 treatments to all cases. Treatments were randomly assigned, identified only by numerical labels. To retain blinding, the longer withdrawal time was adhered to for all cases. Cases remained in the study only if there was no other treatment. Quarter samples were recultured 14, 21, and 28 days later. If all samples after day 1 were culture negative, the case was defined as cured. If only 1 of the follow-up results was positive, the case was considered cured if the day-28 somatic cell count was < 300,000/ml. Failure of treatment was defined as 2 or more culture-positive follow-up samples.

Results

Florfenicol and cloxacillin did not differ significantly in efficacy versus clinical (n = 85) or subclinical (n = 71) bovine mastitis, or for any etiologic agent (χ2). Overall cure rates for mastitis were: Str agalactiae, 5 of 8 (63%); Sta aureus, 5 of 54 (9%); Streptococcus sp, 16 of 35 (46%); Staphylococcus sp, 7 of 33 (21 %); E coli, 5 of 11 (46%); Klebsiella sp, 3 of 6 (50%); others, 1 of 9 (11%); and all cases, 42 of 156 (27%).

Conclusions

Florfenicol did not offer any advantage over cloxacillin in efficacy against bovine mastitis. Overall cure rates were low. As with most mastitis treatment regimens, poor efficacy may be partly attributable to the short duration of treatment. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:526–528)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To develop a reference database for characterization of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae strains by automated ribotyping and to use it to assess the discriminatory power of this typing procedure and the geographic distribution of Sta aureus and Str agalactiae strains in New York state dairy herds.

Sample Population

22 commercial dairy herds.

Procedure

Isolates of Sta aureus and Str agalactiae from bovine milk were identified by standard bacteriologic procedures, then typed by automated ribotyping. Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was tested in vitro. Two indicators made from the data were percentage of farms with multiple ribotypes and percentage of single ribotypes found in several geographic regions. Standard bacteriologic diagnosis, automated ribotyping, and determination of antibiograms (Kirby-Bauer method) also were done.

Results

Of 50 Sta aureus and 44 Str agalactiae isolates from composite milk samples of 12 and 10 herds, respectively, 18 and 14 ribotypes, respectively, were identified. The discriminatory power of automated ribotyping was approximately 0.96 (Hunter-Gaston's formula). A higher percentage of herds with Sta aureus had multiple ribotypes. The most common Sta aureus ribotypes tended to have broader geographic distribution. Some Sta aureus ribotypes were significantly associated with antibiotic resistance profiles.

Conclusions

Automated ribotyping appears to characterize bovine strains of bacteria associated with intramammary infections with a high discriminatory index. Potential applications include identification of strains that appear to have broad geographic distribution suggesting interfarm transfer, discrimination between recurrent versus new intramammary infections (ie, for control of Str agalactiae and Sta aureus), and evaluation of antibiotic therapy. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:482–487)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the outcome in dogs diagnosed with congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (EHPSS) at ≥ 5 years of age treated with medical management only (M) or with surgical attenuation (S). The hypothesis was that dogs undergoing surgical attenuation would have a longer survival time than dogs undergoing medical management only.

ANIMALS

351 dogs definitively diagnosed with EHPSS at ≥ 5 years of age.

PROCEDURES

Medical records from 2009 to 2019 at 16 veterinary teaching hospitals were evaluated. Data collected included signalment, clinical signs at diagnosis, clinicopathologic data, surgical and medical treatments, shunt morphology, clinical signs and medical treatments at 6 to 12 months after diagnosis, and survival time.

RESULTS

351 dogs (M, 119 [33.9%]; S, 232 [66.1%]) were included in the study. Survival time was longer with surgery than medical management (hazard ratio, 4.2; M, 3.4 years; S, 10.9 years). Continued clinical signs at 6 to 12 months after diagnosis were more common with medical management (M, 40% [33/88]; S, 14% [21/155]). Continued medical treatments at 6 to 12 months after diagnosis were more common in the medical management group (M, 78% [69/88]; S, 34% [53/155]). Perioperative mortality rate was 7.3%.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Dogs diagnosed at ≥ 5 years of age with EHPSS have significantly better survival times and fewer clinical signs with surgical attenuation, compared with medical management. Older dogs have similar surgical mortality rates to dogs of all ages after surgical EHPSS attenuation.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association