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  • Author or Editor: David B. Parker x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine the clinical, clinicopathologic, and histologic effects of aerosolized feedyard dust that contains natural endotoxins on adult sheep.

Animals—Eighteen 3-year-old Saint Croix sheep.

Procedure—A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted. There were 2 treatment groups (dust-endotoxin group, n = 9; control group, 9). Aerosolized feedyard dust was provided continuously during a 4-hour period for each application (once in week 1, 3 times in week 2, and 7 times in week 3) to sheep in a semiairtight tent. All sheep were euthanatized and necropsied 8 hours after the treatment group received the last dust treatment. Variables measured before and after each dust treatment were rectal temperature, total WBC count, and concentrations of fibrinogen and haptoglobin.

Results—Mean amount of dust administered during each treatment was 451 g/4 h. Filter collection indicated 51 mg of dust/m3 and 7,423 ng of endotoxin. Mean rectal temperature at 8 hours (40.4 C) and mean WBC counts 12 and 24 hours after dust treatment were significantly higher for the treated group than the means of the respective variables for the control group. Similar responses were observed with repeated dust-endotoxin treatments; however, with each subsequent treatment, there was a diminished response. Sheep in the treatment group had generalized alveolar septal thickening and hypercellularity.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Feedyard dust induced a temporary febrile response and leukocytosis in sheep in the treatment group. Exposure to dust that contains endotoxins may be a stressor preceding acute infectious respiratory tract disease of marketed sheep. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:28–35)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the bacterial, fungal, and endotoxin concentrations in aerosolized ambient air during the winter and summer in feedyards located in the Southern High Plains, identify aerosolized microbial pathogens, and determine the size of microbial and dust components.

Sample Population—Aerosol samples were obtained from 7 feedyards.

Procedure—Aerosol samples were collected upwind, on-site, and downwind from each feedyard at a point 1 m above the ground by use of biological 2- and 6- stage cascade impactors.

Results—Significantly more microbes were cultured from on-site and downwind samples than upwind samples. There were significantly more microbes during the summer than during the winter. However, mean endotoxin concentration was significantly higher during the winter (8.37 ng/m3) than the summer (2.63 ng/m3). Among 7 feedyards, mean ± SE number of mesophilic bacteria (1,441 ± 195 colony-forming units [CFUs]/m3) was significantly higher than mean number of anaerobic bacteria (751 ± 133 CFUs/m3) or thermophilic bacteria (54 ± 10 CFUs/m3) in feedyard air. Feedyard aerosol samples contained more mesophilic fungi (78 ± 7 CFUs/m3) than thermophilic fungi (2 ± 0.2 CFUs/m3). Eighteen genera of bacteria were identified by use of an automated identification system.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—It appeared that gram-negative enteric pathogens offered little risk to remote calves or humans via ambient aerosols and that gram-positive pathogens of the Bacillus, Corynebacterium, and Staphylococcus spp can be spread by aerosols in and around feedyards. It was common to detect concentrations of endotoxin in the ambient air of 7 feedyards. ( Am J Vet Res 2004; 65:45–52)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the impact of feedyards on endotoxin concentration, fecal coliform count, and other water quality measurements during winter and summer in feedyard playas (shallow lakes).

Sample Population—Water samples obtained from 7 feedyard playas and 3 nonfeedyard control playas.

Procedure—Surface water samples were collected from each playa and at various depths from 3 feedyard playas. Endotoxin concentrations, 22 water quality variables, and fecal coliform counts were determined in samples collected in summer and winter from various combinations of playas.

Results—Cattle numbers per feedyard ranged from 40,000 to 175,000 head/y. Mean endotoxin concentrations were significantly lower in control playas than in feedyard playas in winter and summer. Endotoxin concentration appeared to be homogenous at various water depths. Values for 20 of 22 water quality variables were higher in the feedyard playas than in control playas in winter and summer. In winter only, mean total fecal coliform concentration in feedyard playas was significantly greater than in control playas.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that feedyards have the potential to impact water quality in playas, and cattle should not be allowed access to them. Feedyard playa water should not be used under high pressure to settle dust in pens with cattle or to cool cattle, because aerosols containing pathogens and high concentrations of endotoxin are a health hazard for humans and cattle. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1402–1407)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of transportation stress on serum concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers of calves.

Animals—105 crossbred beef steer calves (mean [± SD] body weight, 207 ± 21.2 kg).

Procedure—Calves were assembled at 1 location in Tennessee, and pretransit (day –3) blood samples were collected. Calves were allotted randomly by body weight into 2 groups. Calves were transported 1,930 miles to a feedlot in Texas, and 1 group received tilmicosin phosphate (33 µg/kg, SC) upon arrival. Calves were weighed and blood samples collected on the day of arrival (day 1) and on days 15, 22, and 28. Calves were scored daily for signs of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Serum total antioxidant capacity (TACA) and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were determined.

Results—Transportation stress significantly decreased mean serum TACA concentrations (from 147 ± 31.2 U/mL to 133 ± 20.1 U/mL) and significantly increased serum MDA concentrations (from 10.9 ± 18.3 µg/mL to 30.2 ± 50.5 µg/mL). Calves that died had a 43% increase in serum MDA concentration on day 1, compared with calves that lived (42.2 ± 67.0 µg/mL vs 29.4 ± 49.4 µg/mL, respectively). Calves that had ≥ 3 episodes of BRD had 2-fold higher serum MDA concentrations on day 1 than healthy calves. Tilmicosintreated calves had a 20.8% significantly greater average daily gain and significantly greater serum TACA concentration than nontreated calves on day 28.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Transportation stress increases serum concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers that are related to episodes of BRD and mortality in calves. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:860–864)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research