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Summary

Pharmacokinetic values after iv administration of amikacin sulfate were determined for clinically normal and hospitalized foals during the first week of life. The relations between drug disposition and sepsis score and serum creatinine concentration also were studied. In clinically normal foals, differences in sepsis score, serum creatinine concentration, and pharmacokinetic variables of amikacin were not found between foals 1 to 3 and 4 to 7 days old. In hospitalized foals, sepsis score, serum creatinine concentration, area under the curve, area under the moment curve, and mean residence time were greater, and total clearance was decreased, compared with values in clinically normal foals. Sepsis score and serum creatinine concentration were inversely correlated to amikacin clearance and appeared to be useful indicators of altered drug disposition.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The pharmacokinetics of ibuprofen were studied in 6 adult lactating dairy cows after a single iv or oral administration of ibuprofen (25 mg/kg of body weight). Ibuprofen concentrations in milk and serum were analyzed by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. The lower limit of detection of the ibuprofen assay was 50 ng/ml.

Serum ibuprofen concentration-time curves after iv administration best fit an open two-compartment model. Harmonic mean volume of distribution at steady state was 0.14 (range, 0.12 to 0.17) L/kg, elimination half-life was 1.55 (range, 1.33 to 1.73) hours, and total clearance was 86.2 (range, 68.8 to 106.2) ml/kg/h. Harmonic mean oral bioavailability was 99% (range, 79 to 112). Adverse effects were not observed in cows given ibuprofen.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Pharmacokinetic variables of ibuprofen were studied in 6 adult lactating dairy goats after single administration of the drug (14 and 25 mg/kg of body weight, IV, and 50 and 100 mg/kg, PO). Each of the goats was given all doses, with a minimum of 1 week between doses. Ibuprofen concentration in serum was analyzed by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. The lower limit of detection for the ibuprofen assay was 50 ng/ml.

Ibuprofen pharmacokinetic variables after IV administration best fit an open two-compartment model. Geometric mean (range) volume of distribution at steady state was 0.16 (0.11 to 0.19) and 0.17 (0.15 to 0.19) L/kg, and terminal half-life was 1.08 (0.79 to 1.70) and 1.27 (1.03 to 1.88) hours, for ibuprofen dosages of 14 and 25 mg/kg, respectively. After 50 and 100 mg/kg administered orally, bioavailability was 90.8 and 106%, respectively. Area under the curve increased linearly with dose administered. Adverse effects were not observed in goats given ibuprofen.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Plasma cortisol concentrations were compared in canine surgical patients given etomidate (2 mg/kg of body weight, iv) or thiopental sodium (12 mg/kg, iv) for anesthetic induction. Blood samples to determine plasma concentrations of etomidate were obtained at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after induction. Adrenocortical function was evaluated before surgery by use of adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation tests. Dogs in both induction groups had high plasma cortisol concentrations after induction. Dogs given thiopental had a significant increase (P < 0.05) in plasma cortisol concentration from baseline at 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 12 hours after induction. Dogs given etomidate had a significant increase (P < 0.05) in plasma cortisol concentration from baseline at 5, 6, and 8 hours after induction. A comparison of plasma cortisol concentrations determined at 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 hours after induction with thiopental or etomidate revealed a higher (P < 0.05) concentration in dogs given thiopental.

The disposition of etomidate was best described by a 2-compartment model, with a redistribution half-life of 0.12 ± 0.04 minute and a terminal half-life of 1.70 ± 0.27 minute. Plasma cortisol concentrations did not correlate with plasma etomidate concentrations.

We conclude that, compared with thiopental, a single bolus injection of etomidate reduces the adrenocortical response to anesthesia and surgery from 2 to 6 hours after induction. Because cortisol concentrations were significantly higher than baseline, and because cardiopulmonary function is maintained after a single bolus injection of etomidate, it can be considered a safe induction agent in dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research