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  • Author or Editor: David A. Wilkie x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of an intravitreal sustained-release cyclosporine (CsA) delivery device for treatment of horses with naturally occurring recurrent uveitis.

Animals—16 horses with recurrent uveitis.

Procedures—Horses with frequent recurrent episodes of uveitis or with disease that was progressing despite appropriate medication were selected for this study. Additional inclusion criteria included adequate retinal function as determined by use of electroretinography, lack of severe cataract formation, and no vision-threatening ocular complications (eg, retinal detachment, severe retinal degeneration, and posterior synechia). Sustained-release CsA delivery devices (4 µg of CsA/d) were implanted into the vitreous through a sclerotomy at the pars plana. Reexaminations were performed 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after implantation, then continued annually. Ophthalmic changes, number of recurrent episodes of uveitis, and vision were recorded.

Results—The rate of recurrent episodes after device implantation (0.36 episodes/y) was less than prior to surgery (7.5 episodes/y). In addition, only 3 horses developed episodes of recurrent uveitis after surgery. Vision was detected in 14 of 16 affected eyes at a mean follow-up time of 13.8 months (range, 6 to 24 months).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This intravitreal sustained-release CsA delivery device may be a safe and important tool for long-term treatment of horses with chronic recurrent uveitis. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1892–1896)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To estimate intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes of healthy camelids, using applanation tonometry.

Animals—The eyes of 34 camelids (16 llamas [Lama glama] and 18 alpacas [L pacos]) that did not have major abnormalities of the ocular surface or intraocular abnormalities.

Procedure—Tonometry measurements were obtained from each eye 3 times during a 24-hour period. Each measurement was the mean of several corneal applanations obtained by use of an applanation tonometer. Data were analyzed, using an ANOVA for a repeated-measures design.

Results—Mean (± SEM) IOP of llamas and alpacas was 13.10 ± 0.35 and 14.85 ± 0.45 mm Hg, respectively. Range of IOP was 7 to 18 mm Hg for llamas and 11 to 21 mm Hg for alpacas. Mean IOP of llamas was significantly less than the mean IOP of alpacas. Significant differences in IOP were not detected between the right and left eye of animals. Significant differences in IOP were not attributed to sex, age, or time of measurement within llamas or alpacas.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Establishing the mean and range of IOP of clinically normal llamas and alpacas provides a frame of reference that is important for use in a complete ophthalmic examination of camelids, which can assist clinicians in the diagnosis of glaucoma and uveitis. Reasons for the difference in mean IOP between llamas and alpacas are unknown. Although the difference may be unimportant clinically, this finding reiterates the fact that caution must be used when extrapolating IOP among species. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1542–1544)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of topical administration of 2% dorzolamide hydrochloride or 2% dorzolamide hydrochloride-0.5% timolol maleate on intraocular pressure (IOP) in clinically normal horses.

Animals—18 healthy adult horses without ocular abnormalities.

Procedure—The IOP was measured at 5 time points (7 AM, 9 AM, 11 AM, 3 PM, 7 PM) over 11 days. On days 1 and 2, baseline values were established. On days 3 through 5, horses received 2% dorzolamide HCl (group D, n = 9) or 2% dorzolamide HCl-0.5% timolol maleate (group DT, 9) in 1 randomly assigned eye every 24 hours immediately following each daily 7 AM IOP measurement. On days 6 through 9, each drug was given every 12 hours (7 AM and 7 PM) in the treated eye. Measurements on days 10 and 11 assessed return to baseline. Mixed linear regression models compared mean IOP difference for each drug at each time period.

Results—Mean IOP decreased significantly in all eyes during the 2 dose/d period, compared with the baseline, 1 dose/d, and follow-up periods.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of either drug every 24 hours for short-term treatment does not reduce IOP significantly. Administering either drug every 12 hours induced a significant reduction of IOP; however, controlling for all variables, the reduction was less than 2 mm Hg. (Am J Vet Res 2001;61:709–713)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of topical antimicrobial and antimicrobial-corticosteroid preparations on the ocular flora of horses.

Animals—40 horses.

Procedure—One eye was treated 3 times daily for 2 weeks with one of the following ointments: 1) neomycinbacitracin- polymyxin B, 2) 0.6% prednisolone-0.3% gentamicin, 3) neomycin-polymyxin B-0.05% dexamethasone, or 4) treated (artificial tears) control. Contralateral eyes of treated control eyes served as untreated control eyes. Corneal and conjunctival specimens for bacterial and fungal cultures were collected prior to initiation of treatment, after 1 and 2 weeks of treatment, and 2 weeks after concluding treatment. Changes in culture growth quantity scores of bacterial and fungal species were analyzed.

Results—The most common species before treatment were the following: gram-positive bacteria included Streptomyces spp (66%) , Staphylococcus spp (46%) , Bacillus spp (32%) , and Streptococcus spp (32%); gramnegative bacteria included Moraxella spp (28%) , Escherichia coli (24%) , Acinetobacter spp (18%), and Enterobacter spp (14%); and fungi included Aspergillus nidulans (56%) , Cladosporium spp (32%), and Aspergillus fumigatus (22%). In all groups, the percentage of positive bacterial culture results, growth quantity score of gram-positive bacteria, and number of bacterial species isolated decreased at week 1 and increased at week 2, whereas growth quantity score of gram-negative bacteria decreased throughout treatment. Differences were not significant among groups. Fungal growth quantity score decreased during treatment in all groups. Repopulation of bacterial and fungal species occurred.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—All interventions decreased the number of microorganisms. Repopulation of normal flora occurred during and after treatment. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:800–811)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the iridocorneal angle (ICA) and angle opening distance (AOD) in dogs with cataractous and noncataractous lenses; evaluate cataractous eyes ultrasono-graphically for association of postoperative ocular hypertension (POH) with the ICA, AOD, and postoperative echogenic anterior chamber debris; and evaluate intraobserver reliability associated with ICA and AOD measurements.

Animals—56 dogs with 102 cataracts, and 23 clinically normal dogs.

Procedures—Ultrasound biomicroscopy was performed on 102 eyes of 56 dogs before and after cataract surgery and on 46 nondilated and dilated eyes of 23 clinically normal dogs. Cataract stage, ICA, AOD, and association with POH were assessed.

Results—Cataract stage and ICA or AOD were not significantly associated; however, ICA and AOD typically decreased with increasing cataract maturity. Before and after pupillary dilation, AODs were significantly smaller in cataractous eyes than in noncataractous eyes. Before surgery, ICA and AOD in eyes without pupillary dilation were significantly associated with POH. At > 13°, odds of developing POH increased by 11% for each degree increase in the ICA. Postoperative anterior chamber debris was not associated with POH. Coefficient of variation for repeated measurements was 10% for the ICA and 9.5% for the AOD, suggesting good intraobserver reliability.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In this study, dogs with larger ICA and AOD measurements before surgery were at greater risk of developing POH. This information may be useful for future studies to determine whether preventative treatment for POH administered prior to surgery may be beneficial.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of grape seed extract (GSE), lutein, and fish oil containing omega-3 fatty acids on oxidative stress, migration, proliferation, and viability of lens epithelial cells (LECs).

SAMPLE Lens capsules or cultured LECs obtained from canine cadavers.

PROCEDURES An antioxidant reductive capacity assay was used to determine reducing capability of each substance. The LECs were cultured and incubated with various substances, including N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), when appropriate, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as positive and vehicle control substances, respectively. A dichlorofluorescein assay was used to evaluate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to determine cell viability. Ex vivo posterior capsule opacification (PCO) was used to evaluate LEC migration and proliferation.

RESULTS Antioxidant reductive effects of GSE surpassed those of NAC, lutein, and fish oil containing omega-3 fatty acids. The GSE reduced ROS production in LECs, compared with the DMSO vehicle control, whereas lutein was pro-oxidative. All test substances reduced cell viability. Ex vivo PCO was not altered by GSE, was decreased by lutein, and was increased by fish oil containing omega-3 fatty acids, compared with results for the DMSO vehicle control.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Only GSE had significant antioxidant capabilities and reduced ROS production; however, no effect on ex vivo PCO was detected. Fish oil containing omega-3 fatty acids increased ex vivo PCO. No conclusions could be made regarding antioxidant effects of these substances on LECs. These findings suggested that the substances will not decrease PCO.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research