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Objective—To compare results of surgical versus nonsurgical treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—64 dogs with pneumothorax without any history of antecedent trauma.

Procedure—Information on signalment, thoracic radiographic findings, treatment, histologic findings, and outcome was obtained from the medical records. Signalment of affected dogs was compared with signalment of a control population of 260 dogs examined by the emergency service for reasons other than pneumothorax during the study period.

Results—Siberian Huskies were overrepresented in the case population, compared with the control population of dogs examined by the emergency service for other reasons. Twenty-eight dogs were treated without surgery (ie, thoracocentesis or tube thoracostomy with or without cage rest), and 36 were treated with surgery. Information regarding final outcome was available for 33 dogs treated with surgery (median followup time, 485 days) and 15 dogs treated without surgery (median follow-up time, 366 days). Dogs that underwent surgery had significantly lower recurrence (1/30) and mortality (4/33) rates, compared with dogs treated without surgery (6/12 and 8/15, respectively). A definitive diagnosis was obtained for 38 dogs, including 34 of 36 dogs undergoing surgery; 26 had bullous emphysema and 4 had neoplasia. Two dogs developed spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to migration of plant foreign bodies.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that recurrence and mortality rates for dogs with spontaneous pneumothorax managed surgically were significantly lower than rates for dogs managed by nonsurgical means alone. Early surgical intervention is recommended for definitive diagnosis and treatment of dogs with spontaneous pneumothorax. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1670–1674)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To compare analgesic efficacy of preoperative epidural anesthesia with efficacy of femoral and sciatic nerve blockade in dogs undergoing hind limb orthopedic surgery.

Design—Prospective randomized blinded clinical study.

Animals—22 dogs requiring stifle joint surgery.

Procedures—Dogs were premedicated with acepromazine and morphine, and anesthesia was induced with diazepam and propofol and maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen. Prior to surgery, a combination of 1.0% lidocaine solution with 0.25% bupivacaine solution was administered either into the lumbosacral epidural space (11 dogs) or perineurally along the femoral and sciatic nerves (11). Intraoperative nociception was assumed if heart rate or systolic blood pressure increased by > 10% from baseline, in which case fentanyl (2 μg/kg [0.9 μg/lb], IV) was administered as rescue analgesia. Following recovery from anesthesia, signs of postoperative pain were assessed every 30 minutes for 360 minutes from the time of local anesthetic administration via the modified Glasgow pain scale. Patients with scores > 5 (scale, 0 to 20) received hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg [0.05 mg/lb], IV) as rescue analgesia and were then withdrawn from further pain scoring.

Results—Treatment groups did not differ significantly in the number fentanyl boluses administered for intraoperative rescue analgesia. Time to administration of first postoperative rescue analgesia was comparable between groups. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between groups in baseline pain scores, nor were there significant differences at any other point during the postoperative period.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Femoral and sciatic nerve blocks provided intraoperative antinociception and postoperative analgesia similar to epidural anesthesia in dogs undergoing stifle joint surgery.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To determine whether results of the Ortolani method of hip joint palpation in dogs were related to distraction index (DI), Norberg angle, or radiographic hip score.


Cross-sectional study.


459 clinically normal dogs.


Dogs were sedated for radiography and palpation of the hip joints. Results of hip joint palpation were classified as negative, mild positive, moderate positive, or severe positive. Distraction indices were measured for all dogs. Norberg angles were measured for 380 dogs for which ventrodorsal hip-extended radiographic projections were available. Hip scores assigned by the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) were available for 95 dogs.


Age, weight, and sex were not significantly associated with results of hip joint palpation. There was moderate correlation between results of hip joint palpation and DI (r = 0.636), low-moderate correlation between results of hip joint palpation and OFA hip scores (rs = 0.437), and weak negative correlation (r = -0.236) between results of hip joint palpation and Norberg angle. For joints without degenerative joint disease (DJD), there was a significant linear relationship between results of hip palpation and DI; however, for joints with DJD, there was not. Results of hip joint palpation were 5.3-fold as likely to be negative for dogs with DJD as for dogs without.

Clinical Implications

Results of hip joint palpation were at best moderately correlated with radiographic measures of hip joint laxity. Therefore, hip joint palpation should be combined with hip-extended and stress radiography when assessing hip joint quality. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:497–501).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association