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  • Author or Editor: David A. Martínez x
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Objective—To develop a quantitative method of interpreting tibial scintigrams of Thoroughbred racehorses with tibial stress fractures that may facilitate diagnosis of fractures and to provide prognostic information regarding future performance of affected horses.

Animals—35 Thoroughbred racehorses.

Procedures—Static bone-phase scintigrams of tibial stress fractures were quantitatively analyzed by use of ratios of the mean radionuclide counts per pixel in a region of interest (ROI) drawn around the area of increased uptake of radiopharmaceutical to mean counts per pixel in a second ROI drawn around an apparently normal area of the tibial diaphysis. In horses with unilateral fractures, ratios for the contralateral tibia were determined by use of 2 ROIs drawn at the same positions as the ROIs in the fractured tibia. Ratios were compared between fractured versus apparently normal tibias, between horses that returned to racing versus those that did not, and among horses with various grades of lameness. The association between ratios for fractured tibias and intervals between diagnosis and return to racing was also assessed.

Results—Mean ratio of ROIs in apparently normal tibias was 1.35 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 1.50); that in tibias with stress fractures was 3.55 (95% CI, 2.50 to 4.60). These ratios were significantly different. None of the associations between ratios for fractured tibias and grades of lameness or performance outcomes were significant.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tibial stress fracture scintigrams can be quantitatively analyzed. A prospective study with a controlled rehabilitation period is necessary to evaluate the possible applications of this method.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To determine the acute anti-inflammatory effects of topically applied emu oil.


96 male CD-1 mice assigned randomly to 4 groups, each comprising 24 mice.


To induce auricular inflammation, 50 μl of a solution comprising 10 μl of croton oil dissolved in 1 ml of acetone was applied to the inner surface of the left auricle (pinna). One hour later, 3 or 5 μl of emu oil (low- and high-dose groups, respectively) or 5 μl of porcine oil (oil-control) was applied to the left pinna. Control mice remained untreated. Six mice per group were euthanatized 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours after induction of inflammation. Specimens of auricular tissue (ear plugs) were obtained, using a 6-mm biopsy punch. Magnitude of swelling was calculated as the weight difference between left (inflamed) and right (noninflamed) ear plugs; degree of edema was determined as the difference between wet and dry weights of the left ear plug.


Magnitude of swelling was significantly reduced at 6 and 12 hours in mice treated with emu or porcine oil, compared with controls. The greatest reduction in swelling was detected in the high-dose emu group at 6 hours. Compared with controls, degree of edema was significantly reduced at 6 hours only in the high-dose group, whereas by 12 hours, all groups treated with oils had significantly less edema than controls. At 24 hours, magnitude of swelling and degree of edema did not differ among groups.


Topically applied emu oil significantly reduced severity of acute auricular inflammation induced by croton oil in mice. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60: 1558–1561)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To compare initial titers, duration, and residual clinical protection of passively transferred bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) nasal immunoglobulin (Ig) G-1 and IgA, and serum neutralizing (SN) antibodies.


40 three-month-old beef steers born either to unvaccinated or vaccinated cows.


During the last trimester of gestation, cows were assigned randomly to either vaccinated or unvaccinated groups. Calves were grouped on the basis of whether they nursed colostrum from unvaccinated dams (NO-VACC group; n = 20) versus dams vaccinated with 2 doses of an inactivated BRSV vaccine (VACC group; n = 20). At 3 months of age, calves were challenged with BRSV. Respiratory signs were scored. Nasal BRSV IgG-1 and IgA and SN antibodies were compared before and after the challenge. The presence of BRSV in nasal secretions was evaluated by reverse transcription-PCR assays.


Respiratory scores after BRSV challenge were similar between treatment groups. Nasal BRSV IgG-1 and SN antibodies were significantly greater in VACC calves at 48 hours of life; however, by 3 months of age, titers had decayed in both groups. Nasal BRSV IgA titers were minimal after colostrum intake and before the BRSV challenge, and increased in both groups after the challenge. The NO-VACC group had a significantly greater probability of shedding BRSV compared with VACC calves.


At 3 months of age, titers of passively transferred BRSV antibodies in VACC and NO-VACC calves had decayed to nonprotective levels. Calves born to vaccinated dams had a decreased probability of BRSV shedding; however, this was not related to differences in SN or nasal BRSV antibody titers.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To determine the efficacy of primary or booster intranasal vaccination of beef steers on clinical protection and pathogen detection following simultaneous challenge with bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine herpes virus 1.


30 beef steers were randomly allocated to 3 different treatment groups starting at 2 months of age. Group A (n = 10) was administered a single dose of a parenteral modified-live vaccine and was moved to a separate pasture. Groups B (n = 10) and C (10) remained unvaccinated. At 6 months of age, all steers were weaned and transported. Subsequently, groups A and B received a single dose of an intranasal modified-live vaccine vaccine while group C remained unvaccinated. Group C was housed separately until challenge. Two days following vaccination, all steers were challenged with bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine herpes virus 1 and housed in a single pen. Clinical and antibody response outcomes and the presence of nasal pathogens were evaluated.


The odds of clinical disease were lower in group A compared with group C on day 7 postchallenge; however, antibody responses and pathogen detection were not significantly different between groups before and following viral challenge. All calves remained negative for Histophilus somni and Mycoplasma bovis; however, significantly greater loads of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida were detected on day 7 postchallenge compared with day −2 prechallenge.


Intranasal booster vaccination of beef steers at 6 months of age reduced clinical disease early after viral challenge. Weaning, transport, and viral infection promoted increased detection rates of M haemolytica and P multocida regardless of vaccination status.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research