OBJECTIVE To identify variations in glucose values concurrently obtained by use of a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) at the same site, reliability of results for each site, lag time for each site, and influence of site thickness on CGMS accuracy.
ANIMALS 8 random-source research dogs.
PROCEDURES In experiment 1, 8 CGMS sensors were implanted bilaterally at 1 site (4 sensors/side) in 4 dogs. In experiment 2, 2 CGMS sensors were implanted bilaterally at each of 4 sites (1 sensor/side) in 8 dogs; 4 of those 8 dogs then were subjected to a glycemic clamp technique. The CGMS results were compared among sensors and with criterion-referenced results during periods of euglycemia for all 8 dogs and during hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia for 4 dogs during the glycemic clamp procedure.
RESULTS Differences (median, −7 mg/dL; interquartile range [IQR], −18.75 to 3 mg/dL) between CGMS and criterion-referenced glucose concentrations differed significantly among dogs and sites; during euglycemia, they were not different from the expected normal variation between multiple sensors concurrently implanted at the same site. Differences (median, −35 mg/dL; IQR, −74 to −15 mg/dL) between CGMS and criterion-referenced concentrations were greater during changes in glucose concentrations. Thoracic sensors were most accurate but had the shortest mean functional life.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Significant differences were detected between CGMS and criterion-referenced glucose concentrations. Overall clinical utility of CGMS was acceptable at all sites, with most of the values from all sensors, sites, and dogs meeting guidelines for point-of-care glucometers.
OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for temporary tracheostomy tube placement (TTTP) following surgery for alleviation of signs associated with brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) in dogs.
DESIGN Retrospective case-control study.
ANIMALS 122 client-owned dogs with BOAS that underwent surgery to alleviate clinical signs (BOAS surgery).
PROCEDURES The medical records database of a veterinary teaching hospital was searched to identify dogs that underwent BOAS surgery from January 2007 through March 2016. Of the 198 dogs identified, 12 required postoperative TTTP (cases); 110 of the remaining 186 dogs were randomly selected as controls. Data regarding signalment and select preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were extracted from the medical record of each dog. Variables were compared between cases and controls and evaluated for an association with the odds of postoperative TTTP.
RESULTS Body condition score, tracheal diameter-to-thoracic inlet ratio, staphylectomy technique, and mortality rate did not differ significantly between cases and controls. The odds of postoperative TTTP increased approximately 30% (OR, 1.3) for each 1-year increase in patient age. Postoperative administration of corticosteroids and presence of pneumonia were also positively associated with the odds of postoperative TTTP. Median duration of hospitalization was significantly longer for cases than controls.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Age was positively associated with the odds of TTTP in dogs after BOAS surgery, and TTTP led to prolonged hospitalization. Thus, early identification and intervention may be beneficial for dogs with BOAS. The associations between TTTP and postoperative corticosteroid use or pneumonia were likely not causal, but reflective of patient disease severity.
Objective—To determine the hemodynamic consequences
of the coadministration of a continuous rate
infusion (CRI) of medetomidine with a fentanyl bolus
Animals—12 healthy sexually intact male dogs
weighing 30.3 ± 4.2 kg (mean ± SD).
Procedure—Dogs received either fentanyl alone (15.0
µg/kg, IV bolus) or the same dose of fentanyl during an
11-hour CRI of medetomidine (1.5 µg/kg/h, IV). Prior to
drug administration, dogs were instrumented for measurement
of cardiac output, left atrial pressure, and
systemic arterial blood pressures. Additionally, blood
samples were collected from the pulmonary artery
and left atrium for blood gas analysis.
Results—Medetomidine infusion reduced the cardiac
index, heart rate, and O2 delivery while increasing left
atrial pressure. Subsequent fentanyl administration
further decreased the cardiac index. The PaO2 was not
significantly different between the 2 treatment
groups; however, fentanyl transiently decreased PaO2
from baseline values in dogs receiving a CRI of
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Because of
the prolonged hemodynamic changes associated
with the CRI of medetomidine, its safety should be
further evaluated before being clinically implemented
in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1222–1226)
Case Description—A 16-year-old female umbrella cockatoo (Cacatua alba) was referred to the University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine for evaluation of a 3-year seasonal history of lethargy and weight fluctuation.
Clinical Findings—Abnormalities detected via clinicopathologic analyses included mild leukocytosis, heterophilia, and lymphopenia consistent with a stress leukogram. Previous fecal examinations failed to diagnose enteric parasite infestation. Results of a fecal flotation test with Sheather sugar solution revealed spirurid eggs (Spiruroidea). Coelomic radiography revealed a widened cardiohepatic waist with increased soft tissue opacity at the level of the hepatic silhouette. The caudal thoracic and abdominal air sacs bilaterally appeared compressed against the coleomic wall. The proventriculus was increased in diameter, with a proventriculus-to-keel ratio of 1.0. Coelomic ultrasonography and positive-contrast upper gastrointestinal radiography revealed severe thickening and irregularity of the proventricular wall. The animal was anesthetized for an endoscopic examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Intralesional nematodes were identified on histologic examination of biopsy specimens from the proventriculus.
Treatment and Outcome—Effective fenbendazole treatment (15 mg/kg [6.8 mg/lb], PO, alternating between 5 days of treatment and 5 days of no treatment, which continued for 4 periods) was confirmed by repeated endoscopy and fecal examinations. The bird remained free of clinical signs 27 months after diagnosis and treatment.
Clinical Relevance—Antemortem diagnosis of proventricular nematodiasis has not been reported in psittacines. Spirurid nematode eggs are shed intermittently, which may lead to false-negative results on a single routine fecal examination. In this patient, radiography, endoscopy, and histologic evaluation facilitated antemortem diagnosis. This is the first report of successful treatment of this condition in psittacines.