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  • Author or Editor: Daryl V. Nydam x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine the apparent prevalence of shedding of Cryptosporidium spp in healthy alpaca crias and their dams on 14 farms in New York and 1 farm in Pennsylvania.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—110 alpaca crias and their 110 dams.

Procedures—Fecal samples were obtained from 220 alpacas at 14 alpaca farms in New York and 1 farm in Pennsylvania. For each animal, age, sex, and health condition were recorded. A fecal score (1 = normally formed; 2 = soft or loose; 3 = diarrhetic) was recorded for each cria. Cryptosporidium oocysts were identified in fecal samples by a direct immunofluorescence assay.

Results—Apparent prevalence of fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium oocysts was 8% (95% confidence interval, 4% to 15%) in dams and was 7% (95% confidence interval, 3% to 13%) in crias. There was no significant difference in age between dams with positive fecal test results for Cryptosporidium oocysts (median age, 4 years; range, 3 to 8 years) and dams with negative results (median age, 4 years; range, 2.5 to 19 years). No significant difference was found in age between crias with positive fecal test results (median age, 20 days; range, 7 to 53 days) and those with negative results (median, 36 days; range, 2 to 111 days). No significant difference in fecal scores was found between crias with positive versus negative fecal test results.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A higher than previously reported apparent prevalence of fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium oocysts in healthy alpacas was found. A zoonotic risk should be considered, especially for Cryptosporidium parvum.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate clinical variables assessed during the first 24 hours of hospitalization as prognostic indicators for nonambulatory cattle treated by use of a flotation tank.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—51 nonambulatory cattle that underwent flotation treatment.

Procedures—Signalment, history, serum biochemical analyses, patient behavior during flotation, and outcome data were collected from medical records. Outcome was survival to discharge from the hospital or nonsurvival (death or euthanasia). Data were analyzed by use of Wilcoxon rank sum, Fisher exact, and χ2 tests.

Results—19 of 51 cattle survived. Survivors and nonsurvivors did not differ significantly with regard to median weight; age; stage of lactation; duration of recumbency prior to flotation; serum potassium, ionized calcium, or phosphate concentrations at admission to the hospital; or serum creatine kinase activity (value at admission to the hospital, highest value, and last recorded value). Cattle that were able to walk out of the tank after the first flotation treatment were 4.8 times as likely to survive as those that could not. Cattle that did not eat during flotation treatment were 1.9 times as likely to die as those that ate. Cattle that stood apparently normally on all limbs during the first flotation treatment were 2.9 times as likely to survive as those that had an asymmetric stance or were unable to stand.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that objective variables evaluated during the first 24 hours of hospitalization and flotation treatment are associated with outcome among nonambulatory cattle; findings might assist in logical decision making with respect to treatment options.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the total number of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia spp cysts shed by dairy calves during the period when they are most at risk after natural infection.

Animals—478 calves naturally infected with C parvum and 1,016 calves naturally infected with Giardia spp.

Procedure—Oocysts or cysts were enumerated from fecal specimens. Distribution of number of oocysts or cysts versus age was used to determine the best fitting mathematic function. Number of oocysts or cysts per gram of feces for a given duration of shedding was computed by determining the area under the curve. Total number of oocysts or cysts was calculated by taking the product of the resultant and the expected mass of feces.

Results—Intensity of C parvum oocyst shedding was best described by a second-order polynomial function. Shedding increased from 4 days of age, peaked at day 12, and then decreased. An infected 6-day-old calf would produce 3.89 X 1010 oocysts until 12 days old. Pattern of shedding of Giardia spp cysts was best described by exponential functions. Intensity of shedding increased from 4 days of age, peaked at day 14, and then decreased. An infected calf would produce 3.8 X 107 cysts from day 50 until day 56.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The large number of oocysts and cysts shed indicates that shedding by dairy cattle poses a risk for susceptible calves and people. Estimates reported here may be useful to aid in designing cost-effective strategies to manage this risk. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1612–1615)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To estimate the sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and predictive values of blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in dairy cows immediately prior to surgical correction of left-displaced abomasum (LDA) for determining associations between BHB concentration and removal from the herd ≤ 30 days after surgery and to evaluate postsurgical risk of removal for cows with the BHB concentration that had highest sensitivity and specificity for predicting this outcome.

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—136 dairy cows with LDA diagnosed between 5 and 30 days in lactation (ie, days in milk).

Procedures—Blood BHB concentration was measured immediately prior to surgery. All cows underwent surgical correction of LDA while standing. Follow-up information was obtained ≥ 30 days after surgery. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to estimate a critical threshold value for BHB concentration that was associated with removal from the herd, and this value was used in Poisson regression to estimate risk ratio for the same outcome.

Results—While controlling for parity in the model, cows with a BHB concentration < 1.2 mmol/L at the time of LDA surgery were 2.5 times as likely (95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 5.0) to be removed from the herd ≤ 30 days after surgery, compared with cows that had a BHB concentration ≥ 1.2 mmol/L.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that blood BHB concentration in dairy cows undergoing surgical correction of LDA may potentially be a useful prognostic indicator for the likelihood of removal from the herd ≤ 30 days after surgery. Further research is needed to evaluate other risk factors that may be associated with this outcome.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of nutritional plane on health and performance of dairy calves after infection with Cryptosporidium parvum.

Design—Randomized, controlled trial.

Animals—20 Holstein bull calves.

Procedures—Calves were assigned to a higher plane of nutrition (HPN; 0.30 Mcal intake energy/kg of metabolic body weight using a 28% protein-20% fat milk replacer) or conventional nutrition (CN; 0.13 Mcal intake energy/kg of metabolic body weight using a 20% protein-20% fat milk replacer). Calves were inoculated with C parvum oocysts at 3 days old. Fecal and health scores, oocyst counts, weight gain, dry matter intake, and hematologic variables were measured for 21 days. Data were analyzed with nonparametric and regression methods.

Results—Body weight (day 1), serum total protein concentration (day 3), and PCV (day 3) were not different between groups. Oocyst shedding was not different between groups. The PCV was higher in the CN group (40%), compared with the HPN group (32%) at the end of the study. Fecal scores (FS) improved faster in the HPN group (median, −0.1 FS/feeding), compared with the CN group (median, −0.06 FS/feeding). The HPN calves had better average daily gain (ADG) than did CN calves (median, 433 g/d vs −48 g/d, respectively). Feed efficiency (ADG:dry matter intake ratio) was better for HPN calves than CN calves (median, 131.9 g/kg vs −31.4 g/kg).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—After a pathogen challenge, calves maintained hydration, had faster resolution of diarrhea, grew faster, and converted feed with greater efficiency when fed a higher plane of nutrition.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the risk posed by Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis from dairy cattle in the New York City watershed (NYCW).

Sample Population—Samples from cattle at risk for shedding Cryptosporidium organisms on randomly selected dairy farms in the NYCW.

Procedure—Feces were collected for 4 years from calves at risk for infection on 37 dairies. Oocysts were detected by use of centrifugation concentration-flotation microscopy. The DNA was directly isolated from fecal samples and used to amplify fragments of the small subunit ribosomal RNA and thrombospondinrelated adhesion protein C-2 genes by use of nested polymerase chain reaction assays. Small subunit ribosomal RNA fragments were restriction digested by the enzyme VspI and thrombospondin-related adhesion protein C-2 fragments were digested by Eco91I to distinguish between C hominis (formerly known as genotype 1) and C parvum (formerly known as genotype 2).

Results—Of 437 fecal samples examined, 214 contained oocysts. Amplicons were generated for 200 samples. We can be certain, with 95% confidence, that cattle in the NYCW did not harbor C hominis.

Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceCryptosporidium infections in cattle are under examination because of the potential contamination of public waters by manure. Although cattle may be the source of zoonotic infection via C parvum, they pose little risk for C hominis (the strain commonly isolated from humans in waterborne outbreaks of disease). Other sources of oocysts should be considered when investigating outbreaks attributable to contaminated urban drinking water because cattle pose only a small risk via shedding of C hominis. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:413–417).

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To perform respiratory chain enzymatic activity assays on canine skeletal muscle biopsy specimens and establish reference range values of skeletal muscle enzyme activities for dogs.

Sample Population—Biopsy specimens from the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained from 24 dogs (8 sexually intact males and 14 sexually intact females) ranging from 15 months to 6 years of age.

Procedure—Mean values of citrate synthase, cytochrome-c oxidase, succinate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase-cytochrome-c reductase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase, and NADH dehydrogenase-cytochrome-c reductase activities were established by use of 6 standard spectrophotometric assays for respiratory chain enzyme analysis.

Results—Compared with published data for skeletal muscle enzyme activities in humans, skeletal muscle enzyme activities in dogs were 2- to 4-fold higher. Additionally, citrate synthase activity, a marker for mitochondrial volume, was positively correlated with age in dogs, suggesting that mitochondrial volume increases with age, although no apparent change in respiratory chain enzymatic activity with an increase in age was found.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Reference range values for skeletal muscle enzyme activities of dogs are needed to accurately interpret results of respiratory chain enzymatic activity assays. During investigation of metabolic myopathies, if skeletal muscle biopsy specimens are evaluated for respiratory chain enzyme kinetics, they should be performed and evaluated in concert with skeletal muscle biopsy specimens from clinically normal animals of the same species. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:480–484)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the effect of opsonization of Rhodococcus equi with R equi-specific antibodies in plasma on bacterial viability and phagocyte activation in a cell culture model of infection.

Sample—Neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrophages from 6 healthy 1-week-old foals and 1 adult horse.

Procedures—Foal and adult horse phagocytes were incubated with either opsonized or nonopsonized bacteria. Opsonization was achieved by use of plasma containing high or low concentrations of R equi-specific antibodies. Phagocyte oxidative burst activity was measured by use of flow cytometry, and macrophage tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production was measured via an ELISA. Extracellular and intracellular bacterial viability was measured with a novel R equi-luciferase construct that used a luminometer.

Results—Opsonized bacteria increased oxidative burst activity in adult horse phagocytes, and neutrophil activity was dependent on the concentration of specific antibody. Secretion of TNF-α was higher in macrophages infected with opsonized bacteria. Opsonization had no significant effect on bacterial viability in macrophages; however, extracellular bacterial viability was decreased in broth containing plasma with R equi-specific antibodies, compared with viability in broth alone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The use of plasma enriched with specific antibodies for the opsonization of R equi increased the activation of phagocytes and decreased bacterial viability in the extracellular space. Although opsonized R equi increased TNF-α secretion and oxidative burst in macrophages, additional factors may be necessary for effective intracellular bacterial killing. These data have suggested a possible role of plasma antibody in protection of foals from R equi pneumonia.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To elucidate the ecology of Listeria monocytogenes on dairy cattle farms by determining the prevalence of the organism in various samples.

Sample Population—Dairy cattle operations in central New York State.

Procedures—A repeated cross-sectional study design was used. Various samples were obtained from cattle (feces, composite udder milk, and udders), their environment (silage, feed bunks, water troughs, and floor bedding), inline milk filters, and bulk tank milk from 50 dairy farms. Samples were tested for L monocytogenes by use of a PCR assay with 2 steps of bacterial enrichment. Data were analyzed with mixed-effect logistic regression to control for the potential clustering of L monocytogenes on particular farms.

ResultsL monocytogenes was detected in composite milk, udder swab samples, and fecal samples at prevalences of 13%, 19%, and 43%, respectively. There was no significant clustering of the pathogen by farm. Listeria monocytogenes was more common in samples obtained from cattle and the environment during winter and summer versus the fall. The prevalence of L monocytogenes was twice as high in samples obtained from feed bunks, water troughs, and bedding, compared with that in samples obtained from silage (65%, 66%, 55%, and 30%, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceL monocytogenes was more prevalent in samples obtained from dairy cattle and their environment than in milk samples. Strategies to control the pathogen in dairy operations should focus on cow hygiene and sanitary milk harvesting on the farm.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research