Objective—To determine prevalence of a radiographic
caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte (CCO) on the
femoral neck in various breeds and age groups of
dogs and to evaluate its contemporaneous relationship
with degenerative joint disease (DJD) and distraction
Design—Cross-sectional prevalence study.
Animals—25,968 dogs, including 3,729 German
Shepherd Dogs, 4,545 Golden Retrievers, 6,277
Labrador Retrievers, and 1,191 Rottweilers.
Procedure—Data from the University of
Pennsylvania Hip Improvement Program database
were analyzed, including ventrodorsal hip-extended,
compression, and distraction radiographs. The CCO
and radiographic signs of DJD were considered independent
events and were interpreted as either present
or absent. Statistical methods were used to evaluate
the CCO as a possible risk factor for DJD and
assess its association with DI, as measured by use of
Results—When all breeds were pooled, DJD was
detected in 8.6% of dogs, and the CCO was detected
in 21.6% of dogs. Among dogs with a CCO,
25.1% had radiographic evidence of DJD. Among
dogs without a CCO, only 4% had DJD. Dogs with a
CCO were 7.9 times as likely to have DJD as were
those without a CCO. Additionally, DI, weight, and
age were significant risk factors for the CCO.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results confirm
the contemporaneous association between the
CCO and DJD and that passive hip laxity, as measured
by use of the DI, is associated with both the CCO and
DJD. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:472–476)
Objective—To evaluate the effects of diet restriction on development of radiographic evidence of hip joint osteoarthritis in dogs.
Design—Longitudinal cohort study.
Animals—48 Labrador Retrievers from 7 litters.
Procedures—Forty-eight 6-week-old puppies from 7 litters were paired with littermates by sex and weight, and each pairmate was randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups of 24 dogs each. Starting at 8 weeks of age, 1 group was fed ad libitum (control fed) and the other was fed 25% less (restricted fed) of the same diet for life on a pairwise basis. The dogs' hip joints were radiographed in the standard ventrodorsal hip-extended view at multiple intervals prior to 1 year of age and at annual intervals thereafter on the basis of birth anniversary. A board-certified radiologist unaware of group assignment scored the radiographs for evidence of osteoarthritis.
Results—Prevalence of radiographic evidence of hip joint osteoarthritis in all dogs increased linearly throughout the study, from an overall prevalence of 15% at 2 years to 67% by 14 years. Restricted-fed dogs had lower prevalence and later onset of hip joint osteoarthritis. Median age at first identification of radiographic evidence of hip joint osteoarthritis was significantly lower in the control-fed group (6 years), compared with the restricted-fed group (12 years).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Restricted feeding delayed or prevented development of radiographic signs of hip joint osteoarthritis in this cohort of Labrador Retrievers. Lifetime maintenance of 25% diet restriction delayed onset and reduced severity of hip joint osteoarthritis, thus favorably affecting both duration and quality of life. In addition, the data indicated that development of hip joint osteoarthritis was not bimodal in these dogs but occurred as a continuum throughout life.
Objective—To estimate prevalence of canine hip dysplasia
(CHD) in Golden Retrievers and Rottweilers and
identify sources of bias in published reports.
Animals—200 clinically normal Golden Retrievers and
140 clinically normal Rottweilers between 24 and 60
months of age referred for hip evaluation (group 1) and
93 clinically normal dogs evaluated for Orthopedic
Foundation for Animals (OFA) hip certification (group 2).
Procedure—Hip-extended pelvic radiographs from
group 1 dogs were screened for CHD. Radiographs
were evaluated twice; the first interpretation used an
OFA-type subjective 7-point scoring system, and the
second included the caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte
as an additional sign of degenerative joint disease.
The OFA submission rate of group 2 dogs was
determined from the number of official reports
returned from the OFA.
Results—Prevalence of CHD in Golden Retrievers
ranged from 53% to 73% and in Rottweilers ranged
from 41% to 69%. Among dogs referred for OFA evaluation,
radiographs from 49 (53%) were submitted to
OFA. Of submitted radiographs, 45 (92%) were normal;
of radiographs not submitted, 22 (50%) were
normal. Radiographs with normal-appearing hips
were 8.2 times as likely to be submitted to the OFA.
Compared with Golden Retrievers, Rottweiler radiographs
were significantly more likely to be submitted
for OFA certification.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prevalence of
CHD in these 2 breeds may be much higher than previously
reported in the United States. Results suggest
substantial bias in the OFA database, which causes
lower estimates of prevalence of CHD. (J Am Vet Med
Objective—To evaluate the effects of 25% diet
restriction on life span of dogs and on markers of
Design—Paired feeding study.
Animals—48 Labrador Retrievers.
Procedures—Dogs were paired, and 1 dog in each
pair was fed 25% less food than its pair-mate from 8
weeks of age until death. Serum biochemical analyses
were performed, body condition was scored, and
body composition was measured annually until 12
years of age. Age at onset of chronic disease and
median (age when 50% of the dogs were deceased)
and maximum (age when 90% of the dogs were
deceased) life spans were evaluated.
Results—Compared with control dogs, food-restricted
dogs weighed less and had lower body fat content
and lower serum triglycerides, triiodothyronine,
insulin, and glucose concentrations. Median life span
was significantly longer for dogs in which food was
restricted. The onset of clinical signs of chronic disease
generally was delayed for food-restricted dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that 25% restriction in food intake increased
median life span and delayed the onset of signs of
chronic disease in these dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc