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  • Author or Editor: Darryl N. Biery x
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Objective—To determine prevalence of a radiographic caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte (CCO) on the femoral neck in various breeds and age groups of dogs and to evaluate its contemporaneous relationship with degenerative joint disease (DJD) and distraction index (DI).

Design—Cross-sectional prevalence study.

Animals—25,968 dogs, including 3,729 German Shepherd Dogs, 4,545 Golden Retrievers, 6,277 Labrador Retrievers, and 1,191 Rottweilers.

Procedure—Data from the University of Pennsylvania Hip Improvement Program database were analyzed, including ventrodorsal hip-extended, compression, and distraction radiographs. The CCO and radiographic signs of DJD were considered independent events and were interpreted as either present or absent. Statistical methods were used to evaluate the CCO as a possible risk factor for DJD and assess its association with DI, as measured by use of distraction radiography.

Results—When all breeds were pooled, DJD was detected in 8.6% of dogs, and the CCO was detected in 21.6% of dogs. Among dogs with a CCO, 25.1% had radiographic evidence of DJD. Among dogs without a CCO, only 4% had DJD. Dogs with a CCO were 7.9 times as likely to have DJD as were those without a CCO. Additionally, DI, weight, and age were significant risk factors for the CCO.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results confirm the contemporaneous association between the CCO and DJD and that passive hip laxity, as measured by use of the DI, is associated with both the CCO and DJD. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:472–476)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To estimate prevalence of canine hip dysplasia (CHD) in Golden Retrievers and Rottweilers and identify sources of bias in published reports.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—200 clinically normal Golden Retrievers and 140 clinically normal Rottweilers between 24 and 60 months of age referred for hip evaluation (group 1) and 93 clinically normal dogs evaluated for Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) hip certification (group 2).

Procedure—Hip-extended pelvic radiographs from group 1 dogs were screened for CHD. Radiographs were evaluated twice; the first interpretation used an OFA-type subjective 7-point scoring system, and the second included the caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte as an additional sign of degenerative joint disease. The OFA submission rate of group 2 dogs was determined from the number of official reports returned from the OFA.

Results—Prevalence of CHD in Golden Retrievers ranged from 53% to 73% and in Rottweilers ranged from 41% to 69%. Among dogs referred for OFA evaluation, radiographs from 49 (53%) were submitted to OFA. Of submitted radiographs, 45 (92%) were normal; of radiographs not submitted, 22 (50%) were normal. Radiographs with normal-appearing hips were 8.2 times as likely to be submitted to the OFA. Compared with Golden Retrievers, Rottweiler radiographs were significantly more likely to be submitted for OFA certification.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prevalence of CHD in these 2 breeds may be much higher than previously reported in the United States. Results suggest substantial bias in the OFA database, which causes lower estimates of prevalence of CHD. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:387–392)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate the effects of diet restriction on development of radiographic evidence of hip joint osteoarthritis in dogs.

Design—Longitudinal cohort study.

Animals—48 Labrador Retrievers from 7 litters.

Procedures—Forty-eight 6-week-old puppies from 7 litters were paired with littermates by sex and weight, and each pairmate was randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups of 24 dogs each. Starting at 8 weeks of age, 1 group was fed ad libitum (control fed) and the other was fed 25% less (restricted fed) of the same diet for life on a pairwise basis. The dogs' hip joints were radiographed in the standard ventrodorsal hip-extended view at multiple intervals prior to 1 year of age and at annual intervals thereafter on the basis of birth anniversary. A board-certified radiologist unaware of group assignment scored the radiographs for evidence of osteoarthritis.

Results—Prevalence of radiographic evidence of hip joint osteoarthritis in all dogs increased linearly throughout the study, from an overall prevalence of 15% at 2 years to 67% by 14 years. Restricted-fed dogs had lower prevalence and later onset of hip joint osteoarthritis. Median age at first identification of radiographic evidence of hip joint osteoarthritis was significantly lower in the control-fed group (6 years), compared with the restricted-fed group (12 years).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Restricted feeding delayed or prevented development of radiographic signs of hip joint osteoarthritis in this cohort of Labrador Retrievers. Lifetime maintenance of 25% diet restriction delayed onset and reduced severity of hip joint osteoarthritis, thus favorably affecting both duration and quality of life. In addition, the data indicated that development of hip joint osteoarthritis was not bimodal in these dogs but occurred as a continuum throughout life.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate the effects of 25% diet restriction on life span of dogs and on markers of aging.

Design—Paired feeding study.

Animals—48 Labrador Retrievers.

Procedures—Dogs were paired, and 1 dog in each pair was fed 25% less food than its pair-mate from 8 weeks of age until death. Serum biochemical analyses were performed, body condition was scored, and body composition was measured annually until 12 years of age. Age at onset of chronic disease and median (age when 50% of the dogs were deceased) and maximum (age when 90% of the dogs were deceased) life spans were evaluated.

Results—Compared with control dogs, food-restricted dogs weighed less and had lower body fat content and lower serum triglycerides, triiodothyronine, insulin, and glucose concentrations. Median life span was significantly longer for dogs in which food was restricted. The onset of clinical signs of chronic disease generally was delayed for food-restricted dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that 25% restriction in food intake increased median life span and delayed the onset of signs of chronic disease in these dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1315–1320)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association