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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To retrospectively evaluate the clinical use of voriconazole in psittacine patients for the treatment of suspected respiratory fungal infections.

ANIMALS

14 client-owned psittacine birds.

METHODS

Medical records were searched from 2012 to 2023 for voriconazole use in psittacines. Species, age, clinical signs, physical examination findings, CT reports, bloodwork results, treatment, and outcome were obtained from the records or client follow-up.

RESULTS

African grey parrots were the most prevalent species (8/14). Dyspnea (9/14) and abnormal respiratory auscultation (11/14) were the most common examination abnormalities. An initial CT was performed in all cases, and pneumonia (10/14) and air sac disease (9/14) were the most common findings, with 8 cases having both pulmonary and air sac disease. Voriconazole doses ranged from 10 to 21 mg/kg (median, 16 mg/kg), with most cases prescribed as every-12-hour frequency (12/14). Three of 14 (21%) cases died or were euthanized within 24 days of diagnosis. One case was euthanized at 311 days, and 6 cases were lost to follow-up. Four of 14 (29%) cases lived > 12 months from diagnosis. Two of these cases cleared clinical infection after receiving voriconazole at 17 to 18 mg/kg (q 12 h). No adverse effects attributable to voriconazole were reported.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Voriconazole can be safely used for the treatment of suspected fungal respiratory infection in psittacines. However, the prognosis for resolution is guarded, and prolonged treatment and repeated diagnostic imaging are necessary in many cases.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A male Major Mitchell’s cockatoo (Lophochroa leadbeateri) of unknown age presented with an ulcerated mass on the ventral tail caudodorsal to the cloaca.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

An impression smear of the mass showed spindle cell atypia. Multiple biopsies were submitted for histopathology with inconclusive results. A CT scan revealed a soft tissue mass causing compression of the cloacal lumen. The patient underwent surgical debulking, and a core of the mass was submitted again for histopathology, which reported it as fibrosarcoma.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Under repeated general isoflurane gas anesthesia, the patient received a course of definitive radiation therapy totaling 60 Gy and divided in 3 Gy X 20 fractions. By treatment completion, the lesion had decreased in size with necrotic debris on the surface. Surrounding tissues appeared healthy and no adverse effects were observed. As of 1.5 years post-treatment, the mass appears completely healed with no signs of reoccurrence.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This case suggests that radiation therapy with this protocol could be an effective treatment option for fibrosarcoma in avian species.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the K-constant for body surface area calculation from body weight in corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) through the use of computed tomography (CT) measurements.

ANIMALS

12 adult corn snakes held by North Carolina State University for research purposes underwent CT between November 2022 and January 2023.

METHODS

Each snake had a CT scan, physical examination, and body weight measurement. CT images were uploaded into software able to perform 3-D reconstruction and measure body surface area. The species-specific K-constant was determined using nonlinear regression analysis between body surface area and (body weight in grams)2/3.

RESULTS

The mean body weight of the 12 adult corn snakes was 228 g, with a mean body surface area of 505.1 cm2. The calculated K-constant was 13.6 (P < .001). The resulting formula for body surface area in corn snakes is BSA in cm2 = 13.6 X (body weight in grams)2/3.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The body surface area formula developed for corn snakes will allow for improved dosing accuracy for medications with low therapeutic safety margins. Additional pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies are necessary to determine the safety and efficacy of individual medications.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research