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  • Author or Editor: Darcy H. Shaw x
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SUMMARY

Acidemia stimulates renal ammonia production and excretion. This adaptive response allows increased H+ secretion and generation of new bicarbonate. To determine whether a relationship existed between urine ammonium (NH4 +) concentration and excretion and urine anion gap (Na+ + K+ − Cl), ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) was administered per os for 5 days to induce systemic acidemia in 12 healthy Beagles. During NH4C1 administration, a strong, statistically significant (P < 0.0001) relationship was apparent between urine NH4 + concentration measured in millimoles per liter and urine anion gap.

Regression equation: urine [NH4 +] = 8.2 − 0.416 × urine anion gap; r = −0.897.

A statistically significant (P = 0.0001) relationship existed between urine NH4 + excretion measured in millimoles per kilogram of body weight per day and urine anion gap.

Regression equation: urine NH4 + excretion = 0.74 − 0.38 × urine anion gap; r = −0.768.

As urine NH4 + concentration or excretion increased, urine anion gap became more negative. Before NH4Cl administration (no systemic acidemia), a weak, but statistically significant (P = 0.015) relationship was observed between urine NH4 + concentration and urine anion gap.

Regression equation: urine [NH4 +] = 65.2 − 0.141 × urine anion gap; r = −0.41.

However, a relationship was not evident between urine NH4 + excretion and urine anion gap before NH4Cl administration. Hence, urine anion gap is a reliable index of urine NH4 + concentration and excretion only in dogs with metabolic acidosis. In human beings with distal renal tubular acidosis, NH4 + excretion is inappropriately low and results in a positive urine anion gap. Therefore, as a reliable index of NH4 + excretion, urine anion gap may represent an easy and rapid method to aid in the diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis in dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
Author:

SUMMARY

The urine-blood carbon dioxide tension (Pco2 ) gradient was measured in 10 healthy mature Beagles after alkalinization of the urine by administration of sodium bicarbonate. The mean (± sd) urine-blood Pco2 gradient was 65.92 ± 14.42 mm of Hg, with range of 38.2 to 82.2 mm of Hg. Mean urine Pco2 was 110.21 ± 14.19 mm of Hg, with range of 84.1 to 127.3 mm of Hg. Because urine-blood Pco2 gradient < 30.0 mm of Hg or urine Pco2 < 55 mm of Hg in people is diagnostic for a defect in distal nephron acidification, similar values might be applicable to diseases in dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To evaluate indices of renal function in healthy, growing Beagle puppies from 9 to 27 weeks of age and to determine whether indices change with age during this period.

Animals—6 healthy Beagle puppies.

Procedure—Urine collections were performed at 2-week intervals in puppies 9 to 27 weeks old. Daily excretion of urinary creatinine, protein, sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphorus, and calcium were determined, as were quantitative urinalyses including endogenous creatinine clearance, urine protein-tocreatinine ratios (UPr/C), and fractional clearances of sodium (FNa), potassium (FK), chloride (FCl), calcium (FCa), and phosphorus (FP).

Results—Significant differences among age groups were detected for endogenous creatinine clearance, and daily urinary protein, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus excretion. Significant differences also existed among age groups for UPr/C, FNa, FK, FCl and FP. Age-related effects fit a linear regression model for FNa, UPr/C, daily phosphorus excretion, and daily protein excretion. Quadratic regression models were judged most appropriate for endogenous creatinine clearance, FK, daily chloride excretion, and daily potassium excretion. Endogenous creatinine clearance measurements higher than adult reference ranges were observed from 9 to 21 weeks of age. The FNa, FK, FCl, FCa, and FP were slightly higher than those reported for adult dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Selected results of quantitative urinalyses in healthy 9- to 27-week-old Beagle puppies differ with age and differ from those measured in adult dogs. Diagnostic measurements performed in puppies of this age range should be compared with age-matched results when possible. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:577–581)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate effects of an intensive 2-day practice-level communication skills training program (CSTP) with a 3-month follow-up communication in practice program (CIPP) on veterinary health-care team members' communication confidence, client satisfaction, and practice financial metrics.

SAMPLE

5 US companion animal veterinary practices.

PROCEDURES

Following pilot testing at 1 veterinary practice, communication skills training was performed on-site at 4 practices. The 2-day CSTP focused on veterinary communication–specific content. The CIPP included in-practice training sessions every other week to reinforce and build upon communication skills. Team members' communication skills confidence (before and after the CSTP and after the CIPP) and client satisfaction with veterinary visits (2 months before and 3 months after the CSTP) were assessed with surveys. Practice-level financial metrics were collected for 18 months. Variables of interest were compared among time points.

RESULTS

Measures of team member communication skills confidence and initiation of client conversations regarding the value of goods and services were significantly greater after the CIPP than before the CSTP. Composite communication skills confidence scores 3 months after the CSTP were positively correlated with the mean practice transaction charge and percentage change in the number of heartworm tests performed in the 3 months after the CSTP, compared with results for the same 3 months in the previous year. Measurements of client satisfaction were high before and after the CSTP. There was no significant change in financial metrics in the 3 months after CSTP, compared with the same 3 months in the previous year.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study highlighted opportunities to increase veterinary health-care team members' communication confidence and identified future considerations for communication training in veterinary workplaces.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate outcomes associated with an experiential leadership program (the Veterinary Leadership Experience [VLE]) among participants 1 year after program completion.

SAMPLE

157 veterinary students and 61 veterinary professionals who participated in the 2015 or 2016 VLE.

PROCEDURES

Participants completed various instruments to assess emotional intelligence, psychological flexibility, resilience, and client-communication skills prior to (pretest) and 1 year after (posttest) attending the VLE; pretest and posttest findings were compared for all but client-communication skills, for which only posttest responses were analyzed. An additional posttest instrument assessed the impact that the VLE had on key knowledge areas (ie, self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relational competence, communication skills, and conflict management skills) and overall impact.

RESULTS

1 year after completing the VLE, participants reported that the program had a high impact on all key knowledge areas; the impact on social awareness and overall impact was significantly higher for veterinary students than for veterinary professionals. Veterinary professionals reported a greater increase in emotional intelligence after program completion than did veterinary students. For each assessed client-communication skill, the percentage of veterinary professionals who reported increased confidence in that skill after program completion was lower than the corresponding percentage of veterinary students. Resilience and psychological flexibility scores did not increase after program completion.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Assessment of the effectiveness and long-term outcomes of experiential leadership programs is important to understanding whether such programs are having the intended effect. Veterinary students and veterinary professionals who were assessed 1 year after completing the VLE reported improvements in leadership skills foundational to the program.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether phenobarbital treatment of epileptic dogs alters serum thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations.

Design

Cross-sectional study.

Animals

78 epileptic dogs receiving phenobarbital (group 1) and 48 untreated epileptic dogs (group 2).

Procedure

Serum biochemical analyses, including T4 and TSH concentrations, were performed for all dogs. Additional in vitro analyses were performed on serum from healthy dogs to determine whether phenobarbital in serum interferes with T4 assays or alters free T, (fT4) concentrations.

Results

Mean serum T4 concentration was significantly lower, and mean serum TSH concentration significantly higher, in dogs in group 1, compared with those in group 2. Thirty-one (40%) dogs in group 1 had serum T4 concentrations less than the reference range, compared with 4 (8%) dogs in group 2. All dogs in group 2 with low serum T4 concentrations had recently had seizure activity. Five (7%) dogs in group 1, but none of the dogs in group 2, had serum TSH concentrations greater than the reference range. Associations were not detected between serum T4 concentration and TSH concentration, age, phenobarbital dosage, duration of treatment, serum phenobarbital concentration, or degree of seizure control. Signs of overt hypothyroidism were not evident in dogs with low T4 concentrations. Addition of phenobarbital in vitro to serum did not affect determination of T4 concentration and only minimally affected fT4 concentration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Clinicians should be aware of the potential for phenobarbital treatment to decrease serum T4 and increase TSH concentrations and should use caution when interpreting results of thyroid tests in dogs receiving phenobarbital. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999:215:489–496)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association