Objectives—To evaluate indices of renal function in
healthy, growing Beagle puppies from 9 to 27 weeks
of age and to determine whether indices change with
age during this period.
Animals—6 healthy Beagle puppies.
Procedure—Urine collections were performed at
2-week intervals in puppies 9 to 27 weeks old. Daily
excretion of urinary creatinine, protein, sodium,
potassium, chloride, phosphorus, and calcium were
determined, as were quantitative urinalyses including
endogenous creatinine clearance, urine protein-tocreatinine
ratios (UPr/C), and fractional clearances of
sodium (FNa), potassium (FK), chloride (FCl), calcium
(FCa), and phosphorus (FP).
Results—Significant differences among age groups
were detected for endogenous creatinine clearance,
and daily urinary protein, potassium, calcium,
and phosphorus excretion. Significant differences
also existed among age groups for UPr/C, FNa, FK,
FCl and FP. Age-related effects fit a linear regression
model for FNa, UPr/C, daily phosphorus excretion,
and daily protein excretion. Quadratic regression
models were judged most appropriate for
endogenous creatinine clearance, FK, daily chloride
excretion, and daily potassium excretion.
Endogenous creatinine clearance measurements
higher than adult reference ranges were observed
from 9 to 21 weeks of age. The FNa, FK, FCl, FCa,
and FP were slightly higher than those reported for
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Selected
results of quantitative urinalyses in healthy 9- to 27-week-old Beagle puppies differ with age and differ
from those measured in adult dogs. Diagnostic
measurements performed in puppies of this age
range should be compared with age-matched
results when possible. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:577–581)
To investigate effects of an intensive 2-day practice-level communication skills training program (CSTP) with a 3-month follow-up communication in practice program (CIPP) on veterinary health-care team members' communication confidence, client satisfaction, and practice financial metrics.
5 US companion animal veterinary practices.
Following pilot testing at 1 veterinary practice, communication skills training was performed on-site at 4 practices. The 2-day CSTP focused on veterinary communication–specific content. The CIPP included in-practice training sessions every other week to reinforce and build upon communication skills. Team members' communication skills confidence (before and after the CSTP and after the CIPP) and client satisfaction with veterinary visits (2 months before and 3 months after the CSTP) were assessed with surveys. Practice-level financial metrics were collected for 18 months. Variables of interest were compared among time points.
Measures of team member communication skills confidence and initiation of client conversations regarding the value of goods and services were significantly greater after the CIPP than before the CSTP. Composite communication skills confidence scores 3 months after the CSTP were positively correlated with the mean practice transaction charge and percentage change in the number of heartworm tests performed in the 3 months after the CSTP, compared with results for the same 3 months in the previous year. Measurements of client satisfaction were high before and after the CSTP. There was no significant change in financial metrics in the 3 months after CSTP, compared with the same 3 months in the previous year.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
This study highlighted opportunities to increase veterinary health-care team members' communication confidence and identified future considerations for communication training in veterinary workplaces.
To evaluate outcomes associated with an experiential leadership program (the Veterinary Leadership Experience [VLE]) among participants 1 year after program completion.
157 veterinary students and 61 veterinary professionals who participated in the 2015 or 2016 VLE.
Participants completed various instruments to assess emotional intelligence, psychological flexibility, resilience, and client-communication skills prior to (pretest) and 1 year after (posttest) attending the VLE; pretest and posttest findings were compared for all but client-communication skills, for which only posttest responses were analyzed. An additional posttest instrument assessed the impact that the VLE had on key knowledge areas (ie, self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relational competence, communication skills, and conflict management skills) and overall impact.
1 year after completing the VLE, participants reported that the program had a high impact on all key knowledge areas; the impact on social awareness and overall impact was significantly higher for veterinary students than for veterinary professionals. Veterinary professionals reported a greater increase in emotional intelligence after program completion than did veterinary students. For each assessed client-communication skill, the percentage of veterinary professionals who reported increased confidence in that skill after program completion was lower than the corresponding percentage of veterinary students. Resilience and psychological flexibility scores did not increase after program completion.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Assessment of the effectiveness and long-term outcomes of experiential leadership programs is important to understanding whether such programs are having the intended effect. Veterinary students and veterinary professionals who were assessed 1 year after completing the VLE reported improvements in leadership skills foundational to the program.