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A14-year-old 3.5-kg (7.7-lb) castrated male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated by the Neurology Service at the University of Florida Veterinary Medical Center because of a 2-month history of profound weakness, ataxia, head tremors, and suspected seizures. Approximately 1 year previously, a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease had been made at another veterinary hospital, which was controlled via administration of prednisolone (1.4 mg/kg [0.64 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h). One week before referral to the Veterinary Medical Center, a CBC revealed normochromic, normocytic, nonregenerative anemia (Hct, 27.9%; reference range, 30% to 48%) and a stress leukogram (WBC count, 29.2 × 10

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A31-year-old 397-g (0.87-lb) female African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) was evaluated at the University of Florida Veterinary Medical Center because of vision concerns. The owner reported that the parrot had deterioration in near vision and a history of a so-called weak heart; there were no available veterinary records. The bird had previously lived in Europe and had been under the care of the current owner in Florida for the past year.

At the initial evaluation, the bird was bright, alert, and responsive and had a body condition score of 2.5/5. On physical examination, mild nuclear sclerosis and serosanguinous

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize the patterns associated with Lorenz plots (LPs) or Poincaré plots derived from the Holter recordings of dogs with various cardiac rhythms.

ANIMALS

77 dogs with 24-hour Holter recordings.

PROCEDURES

A 1-hour period from the Holter recordings from each of 20 dogs without arrhythmias and from each of 57 dogs with arrhythmias (10 each with supraventricular premature complexes, complex supraventricular ectopy, ventricular premature complexes, complex ventricular ectopy, and atrial fibrillation, and 7 with high-grade second-degree atrioventricular block) were used to generate the LPs. Patterns depicted in the LPs were described.

RESULTS

Arrhythmia-free Holter recordings yielded LPs with a Y-shaped pattern and variable silent zones. Recordings with single premature complexes yielded LPs with double side and triple side lobes. Complex ectopy was denoted by dots clustered in the lower left corner of the LPs. The LPs of recordings with atrial fibrillation had fan patterns consistent with a nonlinear relationship between atrial electrical impulses and atrioventricular nodal conduction. The recordings with atrioventricular block yielded LPs with island patterns consistent with variable atrioventricular nodal conduction.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Distinct LP patterns were identified for common cardiac rhythms of dogs, supportive of nonrandom mechanisms as the cause of most rhythms. Visual interpretation of an LP generated from a Holter recording may aid in determining the arrhythmia type and understanding the arrhythmia's mechanism in dogs and other species.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

A 7-year-old 26.8-kg (59-lb) neutered male Golden Retriever was presented for recheck assessment of left-sided congestive heart failure. The dog had undergone combined cutting and high-pressure balloon valvuloplasty for severe subvalvular stenosis (pressure gradient, 170 mm Hg) at 6 months of age and had received atenolol (0.47 mg/kg [0.21 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) since the time of diagnosis. The procedure reduced the pressure gradient to 70 mm Hg and improved the dog's exercise tolerance. The dog was reevaluated 6 years after valvuloplasty because of signs of congestive heart failure. Electrocardiography revealed atrial fibrillation (AF) with a rapid rate of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A 20-year-old 407-kg (895-lb) Appaloosa gelding was evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital because of tachycardia and tachypnea. Seven hours prior, the horse was inappetent and lethargic and had bilateral jugular venous pulsation. There was no known toxin exposure. The horse was treated with flunixin meglumine and referred for evaluation.

Physical examination revealed dull mentation, dark pink mucous membranes with a prolonged capillary refill time, moderate tachypnea (respiratory rate, 46 breaths/min), severe tachycardia (heart rate, 120 beats/min), bilateral jugular pulsations to the level of the ramus of the mandible, and hypokinetic digital and facial arterial pulse quality. Gastrointestinal borborygmi were

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine ECG and echocardiographic measurements in healthy anesthetized Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi).

Animals—20 healthy zebras.

Procedures—Auscultation, base-apex ECG, and echocardiography were performed on anesthetized zebras.

Results—Low-grade systolic murmurs were detected in the left basilar region in 4 of 20 zebras. Evaluation of ECGs from 19 zebras revealed sinus rhythm with a predominantly negative QRS complex and a mean ± SD heart rate of 67 ± 10 beats/min. Echocardiograms of sufficient image quality were obtained for 16 zebras. Interventricular septal thickness in diastole, left ventricular chamber in diastole and systole, left atrial diameter, and left ventricular mass were significantly and moderately correlated with estimated body weight (r values ranged from 0.650 to 0.884). Detectable swirling of blood in the right and sometimes the left ventricles was detected in 9 of 16 zebras, whereas physiologic regurgitation of blood was detected for the aortic valve in 3 zebras, pulmonary valve in 2 zebras, mitral valve in 2 zebras, and tricuspid valve in 1 zebra.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study provide reference information for use in the cardiac evaluation of anesthetized Grevy's zebras.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Diet-associated DCM first came to light in cats in the late 1980s 1 and in dogs in the mid-1990s. 2 The association between diet and DCM in dogs has generally not been much in the news since the early 2000s, but over the past few years, an increasing number of DCM cases involving dogs appear to have been related to diet. The extent of this issue is not clear, not all cases have been confirmed to be linked to diet, and a true association has not been proven to exist. However, when one of the authors (RF) recently

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize features of myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) in Miniature Schnauzers and Yorkshire Terriers.

ANIMALS

69 Miniature Schnauzers and 65 Yorkshire Terriers, each with MMVD.

PROCEDURES

Medical record data for each dog were collected; the study period was January 2007 through December 2016. If available, radiographic data were evaluated, and a vertebral heart scale score was assigned for each dog. Statistical analysis was performed with Student t and Fisher exact tests.

RESULTS

Compared with Yorkshire Terriers, the prevalence of MMVD was significantly higher in Miniature Schnauzers and affected dogs were significantly younger at the time of diagnosis. Miniature Schnauzers were significantly more likely to have mitral valve prolapse and syncope, compared with Yorkshire Terriers. Yorkshire Terriers were significantly more likely to have coughing and have had previous or current treatment with cardiac medications, compared with Miniature Schnauzers. There was no statistical difference between breeds with regard to abnormally high vertebral heart scale scores or radiographic evidence of congestive heart failure.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

With regard to MMVD, features of the disease among Miniature Schnauzers and Yorkshire Terriers were similar, but there were also a few discernable differences between these 2 breeds and from historical findings for dogs with MMVD of other breeds. Clinical signs at the time of diagnosis differed between the 2 breeds, which may have reflected concurrent breed-specific conditions (sick sinus syndrome or airway disease [eg, tracheal collapse]). Future work should include prospective studies to provide additional information regarding the natural progression of MMVD in these dog breeds.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association