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Objective—To determine whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is expressed in benign or malignant canine uveal melanocytic neoplasms and whether expression correlates with malignancy.

Sample Population—Tissue sections from 71 globes; 57 with benign (n = 15), malignant (34), or mixed (8) uveal melanocytic neoplasms; 10 with nonneoplastic disease; and 4 with no abnormalities.

Procedures—Bleached sections from all globes and canine kidney were incubated with mouse monoclonal antibody directed against rat COX-2 protein or mouse antibody isotype control. Location, intensity, and percentage of immunolabeled cells were scored.

Results—Expression of COX-2 was detected in all but 5 globes, all of which contained neoplasms. Expression of COX-2 was detected in regions infiltrated by neoplasia in 21 globes; however, definitive labeling of tumor cells was detected in only 2 of those. In the remaining 19 globes, COX-2 expression was detected in areas also labeled in globes without disease and globes with nonneoplastic disease, especially the aqueous outflow tract and ciliary body. However, only globes with uveal malignant melanomas had detectable COX-2 expression in the iris. Expression of COX-2 was detected in the ciliary body of more globes with uveal malignant melanoma (20/34) than in those without disease (1/4), with nonneoplastic disease (4/10), or with melanocytoma (3/15) or mixed neoplasms (3/8).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Canine globes with uveal melanocytic neoplasia appeared to express COX-2 in similar sites and with similar intensity as globes without neoplasia. Differentiation of benign from malignant canine uveal melanocytic neoplasms was not possible.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To describe clinical and diagnostic imaging features of zygomatic sialadenitis in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—11 dogs with zygomatic sialadenitis and 20 control dogs without evidence of retrobulbar disease.

Procedures—Medical records were searched for dogs with zygomatic sialadenitis that underwent some combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasonography. Signalment, clinical signs, results of clinicopathologic tests, cytologic and histologic diagnosis, treatment, qualitative disease features, and disease course were recorded. Images obtained via MRI or CT were analyzed for pre- and postcontrast signal intensity or density, respectively; zygomatic salivary gland area was determined. Results were compared with those of control dogs that underwent the same imaging procedures (n = 10/method). Ultrasonographic images of affected dogs were assessed qualitatively.

Results—Most (9/11) affected dogs were medium- or large-breed males (mean age, 8 years) with unilateral disease. Affected dogs had clinical signs of retrobulbar disease and cytologic or histologic evidence of zygomatic sialadenitis. Sialoceles were detected in 7 affected glands. Compared with values for control dogs, MRI findings in affected dogs (n = 7) included gland enlargement, T1-weighted hypointensity, T2-weighted hyperintensity, and increased contrast enhancement; CT features in affected dogs (2) included gland enlargement and hypodensity on unenhanced images. Retrobulbar masses were identified via ultrasonography in 9 of 10 orbits examined, and zygomatic salivary gland origin was detected in 4.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Visualization of anatomic structures for diagnosis of zygomatic sialadenitis and evaluation of adjacent structures was excellent via MRI and CT Ultrasonography was less definitive but useful for sample collection.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the incidence of and risk factors for ventilatory failure in dogs undergoing surgery for treatment of cervical spinal disorders and to document ventilator management, clinical course, and long-term outcome of dogs that experienced ventilatory failure in association with cervical spinal disorders or their management.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—14 dogs.

Procedure—Dogs with cervical spinal disorders that required positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) were identified, and signalment, concurrent diseases, neurologic status at initial examination, clinical course, pulmonary function before, during, and after PPV, management techniques, complications, and outcome were recorded. Dogs that underwent surgery and required PPV were compared with dogs that underwent cervical spinal surgery during the same period that did not require PPV.

Results—14 dogs with cervical spinal disorders required PPV to treat hypoventilation, including 13 of 263 (4.9%) dogs that underwent surgery for cervical spinal disorders. Lesions between the second and fourth cervical vertebrae and treatment by means of a dorsal decompressive laminectomy were associated with a significantly increased risk of perioperative hypoventilation. Pulmonary gas exchange function was normal or nearly normal throughout the course of PPV in dogs that survived. Ten dogs survived, and 9 of the 10 regained neurologic function. All 9 dogs that regained neurologic function had deep pain perception on initial examination at the veterinary teaching hospital.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a small percentage of dogs with cervical spinal disorders may require perioperative ventilatory support. With prolonged PPV and aggressive management, a good outcome may be achieved in dogs similar to those described in the present study. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1598–1602).

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association