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  • Author or Editor: Danielle N. Smith x
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OBJECTIVE To compare the plasma pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin between 3-week-old (preweaned) and 6-month-old (weaned) calves and to characterize the distribution of tulathromcyin into pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) of preweaned and weaned calves following SC administration of a single dose (2.5 mg/kg).

ANIMALS 8 healthy 3-week-old and 8 healthy 6-month-old Holstein steers.

PROCEDURES A jugular catheter and SC ultrafiltration probe were aseptically placed in the neck of each calf before tulathromycin administration. Blood, ISF, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected at predetermined times before and after tulathromycin administration for quantification of drug concentration. A urea dilution method was used to estimate tulathromycin concentration in PELF from that in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Tulathromycin–plasma protein binding was determined by in vitro methods. Plasma pharmacokinetics were determined by a 2-compartment model. Pharmacokinetic parameters and drug concentrations were compared between preweaned and weaned calves.

RESULTS Clearance and volume of distribution per fraction of tulathromycin absorbed were significantly greater for weaned calves than preweaned calves. Tulathromycin–plasma protein binding was significantly greater for weaned calves than preweaned calves. Maximum PELF tulathromycin concentration was significantly greater than the maximum plasma and maximum ISF tulathromycin concentrations in both groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that age affected multiple pharmacokinetic parameters of tulathromycin, likely owing to physiologic changes as calves mature from preruminants to ruminants. Knowledge of those changes may be useful in the development of studies to evaluate potential dose adjustments during treatment of calves with respiratory tract disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate the effects of the pacemaker funny current (If) inhibitor ivabradine on heart rate (HR), left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function, and left atrial performance in healthy cats and cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).

Animals—6 healthy cats and 6 cats with subclinical HCM.

Procedures—Anesthetized cats underwent cardiac catheterization and were studied over a range of hemodynamic states induced by treatment with esmolol (200 to 400 μg/kg/min, IV), esmolol and dobutamine (5 μg/kg/min, IV), ivabradine (0.3 mg/kg, IV), and ivabradine and dobutamine. Left ventricular systolic and diastolic function, cardiac output, and left atrial function were studied via catheter-based methods and echocardiography.

Results—Treatment with ivabradine resulted in a significant reduction of HR, rate-pressure product, and LV contractile function and a significant increase in LV end-diastolic pressure, LV end-diastolic wall stress, and LV relaxation time constant (tau) in cats with HCM. Concurrent administration of ivabradine and dobutamine resulted in a significant increase of LV contractility and lusitropy, with blunted chronotropic effects of the catecholamine. Left atrial performance was not significantly altered by ivabradine in cats with HCM. Regression analysis revealed an association between maximum rate of LV pressure rise and tau in cats with HCM.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ivabradine had significant effects on several cardiovascular variables in anesthetized cats with HCM. Studies in awake cats with HCM are needed to clinically validate these findings.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research