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  • Author or Editor: Danielle M. Eifler x
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Abstract

Objective—To investigate the duration of dark-adaptation time required for recovery of electroretinographic responses after fundus photography or indirect ophthalmoscopy in dogs.

Animals—6 dogs.

Procedure—Initially, scotopic-intensity series of electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded after 20 minutes of dark adaptation. The fundus of the left eye of each dog was photographed (n = 10) or examined via indirect ophthalmoscopy for 5 minutes with moderate- (117 candela [cd]/m2) or bright-intensity (1,693 cd/m2) light; ERGs were repeated after a further 20 or 60 minutes of dark adaptation (6 procedures/dog).

Results—Following 20 minutes of dark adaptation after fundus photography, the b- and a-wave amplitudes were reduced in response to brighter stimuli, compared with pretest ERGs; after 60 minutes of dark adaptation, ERG amplitudes had recovered. Following 20 minutes of dark adaptation after indirect ophthalmoscopy (moderate-intensity light), significantly lower b-wave amplitudes were recorded in response to 2 of the brighter flash stimuli, compared with pretest ERGs; after 60 minutes of dark adaptation, ERG amplitudes had recovered. Following 20 minutes of dark adaptation after indirect ophthalmoscopy (bright-intensity light), all ERG amplitudes were significantly decreased and implicit times were significantly decreased at several flash intensities, compared with pretest ERGs; after 60 minutes of dark adaptation, ERG amplitudes and implicit times had returned to initial values, except for b-wave amplitudes recorded in response to dimmer stimuli.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that at least 60 minutes of dark adaptation should be allowed before ERGs are performed in dogs after fundus photography or indirect ophthalmoscopy. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1798–1804)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure concentrations of glutamate, aspartate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glycine in CSF of dogs with experimentally induced subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to assess effects of cyclosporine and simvastatin on these concentrations.

Sample—CSF samples from 13 dogs.

Procedures—In a previous study, SAH was induced in dogs via 2 injections of autologous blood into the cerebellomedullary cistern 24 hours apart. Dogs were untreated (control; n = 5) or received simvastatin alone (4) or simvastatin in combination with cyclosporine (4). Samples of CSF were collected before the first blood injection (baseline; time 0), before the second blood injection, and on days 3, 7, and 10. For the study reported here, neurotransmitter concentrations in CSF were analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed with a repeated-measures model with adjustments for multiple comparisons by use of the Tukey method.

Results—In control dogs, the glutamate concentration peaked on day 3 and there was a significant increase in GABA and glutamate concentrations. Glutamate concentrations were significantly lower and glycine concentrations significantly higher on day 3 after administration of simvastatin alone or simvastatin in combination with cyclosporine, compared with concentrations for the control group. No significant differences in GABA and aspartate concentrations were detected among treatment groups at any time point.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Glutamate concentrations were increased in the CSF of dogs with SAH. Simvastatin administration attenuated high glutamate concentrations. A combination of immunosuppression and upregulation of nitric oxide synthase may be useful in lowering high glutamate concentrations in ischemic CNS conditions.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research