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  • Author or Editor: Daniela Hernandez x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of treatment of horses with standard platelet inhibitors on ex vivo inhibition of platelet activation by equine herpesvirus type I (EHV-I).

ANIMALS II healthy adult horses.

PROCEDURES In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study, horses were treated orally for 5 days with theophylline (5 mg/kg, q 12 h), pentoxifylline (10 mg/kg, q 12 h), clopidogrel bisulfate (4 mg/kg, q 24 h), acetylsalicylic acid (20 mg/kg, q 24 h), or placebo. Horses received all treatments, each separated by a 3-week washout period. Platelet-rich plasma was prepared from citrated blood samples obtained before each treatment session and 4 hours after each final drug dose. Platelets were exposed to 2 EHV-I strains (at I plaque forming units/cell) or positive (thrombin-convulxin) and negative control substances for 10 minutes, then platelet activation was assessed by determining the percentages of P-selectin–positive platelets and platelet-derived microparticles (PDMPs; small events positive for annexin V) with flow cytometry. Platelet aggregation in response to 10μM ADP was also assessed.

RESULTS No significant differences in median percentages of P-selectin–positive platelets and PDMPs in EHV-I-exposed platelets were identified between measurement points (before and after treatment) for all drugs, nor were differences identified among drugs at each measurement point. Only clopidogrel significantly inhibited platelet aggregation in response to ADP in platelet-rich plasma samples obtained after that treatment session.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Treatment of horses with standard platelet inhibitors had no effect on EHV-I-induced platelet α-granule exteriorization or microvesiculation and release of PDMPs ex vivo, suggesting these drugs will not prevent platelet activation induced directly by EHV-I in vivo.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To establish the lowest effective dose of commercially available nanoparticulate silver (AgNP) for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E coli) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), in vitro, and to establish the effect of incorporating AgNP into carriers for sustained release on this antibacterial activity.

SAMPLES

Silver nanoparticle dispersion (0.02 mg/mL) composed of citrate-stabilized, spherical, 10 nm diameter nanoparticles in aqueous buffer.

PROCEDURES

E coli and MRSP were treated with 0.01 mg/mL AgNP. The highest concentration of bacteria where growth was inhibited by AgNP was selected for treatment with 0.01 mg/mL AgNP incorporated 3 carriers for sustained release: calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) beads, poloxamer 407 gel, and gelatin sponge, respectively. The antibacterial activity of AgNP and AgNP incorporated into carriers for sustained release was compared with a mixed linear effects model.

RESULTS

AgNP inhibited bacterial growth at a concentration of 101 for MRSP and 103 for E coli. For MRSP, the treatment group was associated with bacterial growth (P < .001) while the concentration of bacteria and time were not (P = .292 and P = .289, respectively). For E coli, the treatment group and concentration of bacteria were associated with bacterial growth (P < .001 and = .029, respectively) while time was not (P = .095). Poloxamer 407 gel exerted standalone antibacterial activity against both species of bacteria; sponge and CSH beads did not.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

AgNP has antibacterial activity against E coli and MRSP, which can be reduced when incorporated into carriers for sustained release. Poloxamer 407 gel alone and combined with AgNP exerts antibacterial activity against E coli and MRSP.

Open access