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Abstract

Objective—To determine tear volume, turnover rate, and flow rate in ophthalmologically normal horses by use of fluorophotometry.

Animals—12 mares free of ophthalmic disease.

Procedures—2 μL of 10% sodium fluorescein was instilled onto 1 eye of each horse, and tear samples were collected via microcapillary tubes from the inferonasal conjunctival culde-sac at 0, 2, 4, 6, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after instillation. Collected tear samples were then measured for fluorescein concentrations with a computerized scanning ocular fluorophotometer. A decay curve plot of concentration changes over time was used to determine tear flow rate and volume through 2 different mathematical treatments of the data (the including method and the excluding method).

Results—Fluorescein concentration in tears decreased in a first-order manner. The including method yielded a mean tear volume of 360.09 μL, a turnover rate of 12.22%/min, and a flow rate of 47.77 μL/min. The excluding method yielded values of 233.74 μL, 13.21%/min, and 33.62 μL/min, respectively. Mean ± SD correlation coefficients for the natural logarithm of the fluorescein concentration versus time were 0.93 ± 0.12 for the including method and 0.98 ± 0.03 for the excluding method.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The excluding method yielded more accurate results. A tear flow rate of 33.62 μL/min and a tear volume of 233.74 μL imply a complete recycling of the tear volume in approximately 7 minutes and suggest that increased dosing regimens or constant infusion methods for topical administration of ophthalmic drugs may be indicated when treating horses for corneal disease in which high ocular surface concentrations are needed.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine aqueous humor flow rate (AHFR) in an avian species by use of anterior segment fluorophotometry.

Animals—9 healthy red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis; 4 males and 5 females) that ranged from 8 months to 8 years of age.

Procedures—A protocol was developed for fluorophotometric determination of AHFR. Topical administration of 10% fluorescein was used to load the corneas, and corneal and aqueous humor fluorescein concentrations were measured approximately 5, 6.5, and 8 hours later. Concentration-versus-time plots were generated, and slopes and cornea-to-aqueous humor concentration ratios from these plots were used to manually calculate flow rates.

Results—Mean ± SD AHFRs for the right eye, left eye, and both eyes were 3.17 ± 1.36 μL/min (range, 1.67 to 6.21 μL/min), 2.86 ± 0.88 μL/min (range, 2.04 to 4.30 μL/min), and 2.90 ± 0.90 μL/min (range, 1.67 to 4.42 μL/min), respectively. The AHFRs were similar for right and left eyes. These flow rates represented a mean aqueous humor transfer coefficient of 0.0082/min, which is similar to that of mammalian species.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The AHFR in red-tailed hawks was similar to that of most mammalian species, and the fractional egress was almost identical to that of other species. This information will allow a greater understanding of aqueous humor flow in avian eyes, which is crucial when evaluating diseases that affect avian eyes as well as medications that alter aqueous humor flow.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the outcome and describe the complications associated with use of an Ahmed gonioimplant in the treatment of glaucoma in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—9 client-owned sighted dogs (median age, 9 years) with primary glaucoma.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs with primary glaucoma that underwent unilateral gonioimplant placement (in 2000 through 2008), during which a temporalis muscle fascia graft (n = 8) or porcine intestinal submucosa (1) was used to cover the implant tube as it exited the globe, were reviewed. All dogs were treated with mitomycin C in the conjunctival pocket intraoperatively and with tissue plasminogen activator immediately after surgery; 1% prednisolone acetate was applied to the implanted eye daily until failure of the implant. Medical intervention or additional surgery was performed when intraocular pressures (IOPs) were > 20 mm Hg or progressively increasing values were detected.

Results—After gonioimplant placement, IOP was controlled for a variable period in all dogs. Subsequently, IOP exceeded 20 mm Hg in 7 dogs (median postoperative interval, 326 days). Median interval to vision loss despite interventional surgery was 518 days (range, 152 to 1,220 days). Surgical intervention was necessary in 4 dogs to maintain satisfactory IOP. Implant extrusion attributable to conjunctival dehiscence or necrosis occurred in 4 dogs. At 365 days after surgery, 8 dogs retained vision, and 5 dogs retained vision throughout follow-up.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with medically refractory primary glaucoma, placement of a gonioimplant appears to be effective in maintaining vision.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the tear film osmolality and electrolyte composition in healthy horses.

ANIMALS 15 healthy adult horses.

PROCEDURES Each horse was manually restrained, and an ophthalmic examination, which included slit-lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, and a Schirmer tear test, was performed. Tear samples were collected from both eyes with microcapillary tubes 3 times at 5-minute intervals. The tear samples for each horse were pooled, and the osmolality and electrolyte concentrations were measured. The mean (SD) was calculated for each variable to establish preliminary guidelines for tear film osmolality and electrolyte composition in healthy horses.

RESULTS The mean (SD) tear film osmolality was 283.51 (9.33) mmol/kg, and the mean (SD) sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium concentrations were 134.75 (10), 16.3 (5.77), 3.48 (1.97), and 1.06 (0.42) mmol/L, respectively. The sodium concentration in the tear film was similar to that in serum, whereas the potassium concentration in the tear film was approximately 4.75 times that of serum.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results provided preliminary guidelines with which tear samples obtained from horses with keratopathies can be compared. Measurement of tear film osmolality in these horses was easy and noninvasive. The tear film concentration of divalent cations was greater than expected and was higher than the divalent cation concentrations in the tear films of rabbits and humans. These data may be clinically useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of hyperosmolar ocular surface disease in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of topically applied 2% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) ophthalmic solution on aqueous humor flow rate (AHFR) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in clinically normal dogs.

Animals—21 clinically normal dogs.

Procedures—A randomized longitudinal crossover design was used. Following acquisition of baseline IOP (morning and evening) and AHFR (afternoon only) data, dogs were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups and received 1 drop of either 2% THC solution or a control treatment (olive oil vehicle) to 1 randomly selected eye every 12 hours for 9 doses. The IOPs and AHFRs were reassessed after the final treatment. Following a washout period of ≥ 7 days, dogs were administered the alternate treatment in the same eye, and measurements were repeated.

Results—Mean ± SD IOPs in the morning were 15.86 ± 2.48 mm Hg at baseline, 12.54 ± 3.18 mm Hg after THC treatment, and 13.88 ± 3.28 mm Hg after control treatment. Mean ± SD IOPs in the evening were 13.69 ± 3.36 mm Hg at baseline, 11.69 ± 3.94 mm Hg after THC treatment, and 12.13 ± 2.99 mm Hg after control treatment. Mean IOPs were significantly decreased from baseline after administration of THC solution but not the control treatment. Changes in IOP varied substantially among individual dogs. Mean ± SD AHFRs were not significantly different from baseline for either treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Topical application of 2% THC ophthalmic solution resulted in moderate reduction of mean IOP in clinically normal dogs. Further research is needed to determine efficacy in dogs with glaucoma.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of commonly used ophthalmic antibiotics on cellular morphologic characteristics and migration of canine corneal epithelium in cell culture.

Sample Population—Corneal epithelial cells harvested from corneas of 12 euthanatized dogs and propagated in cell culture.

Procedure—Cells were treated with various antibiotics after a defect was created in the monolayer. Cellular morphologic characteristics and closure of the defect were compared between antibiotic-treated and control cells.

Results—Cells treated with ciprofloxacin and cefazolin had the greatest degree of rounding, shrinkage, and detachment from plates. Cells treated with neomycin-polymyxin B-gramicidin and gentamicin sulfate had rounding and shrinkage but with less detachment. Cells treated with tobramycin and chloramphenicol grew similarly to control cells. On the basis of comparisons of defect circumference between control cells and cells exposed to antibiotics, tobramycin affected cellular migration the least.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Effects of ciprofloxacin and cefazolin on morphologic characteristics of canine corneal epithelial cells in vitro should be taken into consideration before using these antibiotics for first-line of treatment for noninfected ulcers. Of the antibiotics tested that have a primarily gramnegative spectrum of coverage, gentamicin inhibited corneal epithelial cell migration and had greater cytopathologic effects than tobramycin did. For antibiotics with a gram-positive coverage, chloramphenicol had no cytopathologic effects on cells in comparison to cefazolin, which caused most of the cells to shrink and detach from the plate. Polymyxin B-neomycingramicidin was midrange in its effects on cellular morphologic characteristics and migration. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:xxx–xxx)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine aqueous humor flow rate in clinically normal dogs, using fluorophotometry.

Animals—20 clinically normal Beagles.

Procedure—A study was performed on 5 dogs to establish an optimal protocol for fluorophotometric determination of aqueous humor flow rate. This protocol then was used to measure aqueous humor flow rate in 15 dogs. Corneas were loaded with fluorescein by topical application, and corneal and aqueous humor fluorescein concentrations were measured 5, 6.5, and 8 hours after application. Concentration-versus- time plots were generated, and slopes and ratios of the fluorescein concentration in the cornea and aqueous humor from these graphs were used to calculate flow rates. Calculations were performed by use of automated software provided with the fluorophotometer and by manual computation, and the 2 calculation methods were compared.

Results—The protocol established for the 5 dogs resulted in semilogarithmic and parallel decay of corneal and aqueous humor concentrations. Manually calculated mean ± SD aqueous humor flow rates for left, right, and both eyes were 5.58 ± 2.42, 4.86 ± 2.49, and 5.22 ± 1.87 μl/min, respectively, whereas corresponding flow rates calculated by use of the automated software were 4.54 ± 3.08, 4.54 ± 3.10, and 4.54 ± 2.57 μl/min, respectively. Values for the left eye were significantly different between the 2 computation methods.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Aqueous humor flow rates can be determined in dogs, using fluorophotometry. This technique can be used to assess pathologic states and medical and surgical treatments that alter aqueous humor dynamics. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:853–858)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of topical application of a 2% solution of dorzolamide on intraocular pressure (IOP) and aqueous humor flow rate in clinically normal dogs.

Animals—15 Beagles.

Procedure—The IOP was measured in both eyes of all dogs for 3 days to determine baseline values. In a single-dose study, 50 μl of dorzolamide or control solution was applied in both eyes at 7:00 AM, and IOP was measured 7 times/d. In a multiple-dose study, dorzolamide or control solution was applied to both eyes 3 times/d for 6 days, and IOP was measured 4 times/d during treatment and for 5 days after cessation of treatment. Aqueous humor flow rate was measured for all dogs fluorophotometrically prior to treatment and during the multiple-dose study.

Results—In the single-dose study, dorzolamide significantly decreased IOP from 30 minutes to 6 hours after treatment. Mean decrease in IOP during this time span was 3.1 mm Hg (18.2%). Maximal decrease was detected 6 hours after treatment (3.8 mm Hg, 22.5%). In the multiple-dose study, dorzolamide decreased IOP at all time points, and maximal decrease was detected 3 hours after treatment (4.1 mm Hg, 24.3%). Mean aqueous humor flow rate decreased from 5.9 to 3.4 μl/min (43%) after treatment in the dorzolamide group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Topical application of a 2% solution of dorzolamide significantly decreases IOP and aqueous humor flow rate in clinically normal dogs. Therefore, topical administration of dorzolamide should be considered for the medical management of dogs with glaucoma. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:859–863)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of endotoxin administration on thyroid function test results and serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) activity in healthy dogs.

Animals—6 healthy adult male dogs.

Procedures—Serum concentrations of thyroxine (T4), 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), 3,3'5'-triiodothyronine (rT3), free T4 (fT4), and endogenous canine thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and TNF-α activity were measured before (day–1; baseline), during (days 0 to 3), and after (days 4 to 24) IV administration of endotoxin every 12 hours for 84 hours.

Results—Compared with baseline values, serum T3 concentration decreased significantly, whereas rT3 concentration increased significantly 8 hours after initial endotoxin administration. Serum T4 concentration decreased significantly at 8 and 12 hours after initiating endotoxin administration. Serum T4 concentration returned to reference range limits, then decreased significantly on days 6 to 12 and 16 to 20. Serum fT4 concentration increased significantly at 12, 24, and 48 hours after cessation of endotoxin treatment, compared with baseline values. Serum rT3 concentration returned to reference range, then decreased significantly days 5 and 7 after stopping endotoxin treatment. Serum TNF-α activity was significantly increased only 4 hours after initial endotoxin treatment, compared with baseline activity.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Endotoxin administration modeled alterations in thyroid function test results found in dogs with spontaneous nonthyroidal illness syndrome. A decrease in serum T4 and T3 concentrations and increase in serum rT3 concentration indicate impaired secretion and metabolism of thyroid hormones. The persistent decrease in serum T4 concentration indicates that caution should be used in interpreting serum T4 concentrations after resolution of an illness in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:229–234)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are associated with postoperative outcome in working dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis.

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—12 dogs treated surgically for degenerative lumbosacral stenosis.

Procedure—Procedure—The lumbosacral vertebral column was examined before surgery by use of MRI and CT and after surgery by use of CT. Outcome, based on performance in standardized training exercises, was assessed 6 months after decompressive surgery. Associations between imaging results and postoperative outcome were determined by use of a Fisher exact test and logistic regression.

Results—None of the dogs were able to perform their duties before surgery. By 6 months after surgery, 8 of 12 dogs had been returned to full active duty. Nerve tissue compression was effectively localized by use of CT and MRI. Significant associations between results of imaging studies and postoperative outcome were not identified.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Surgical intervention is justified in high-performance working dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis. However, results of imaging studies may be less important than clinical or surgical factors for predicting outcome in affected dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1769–1774)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association