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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the clinical outcomes associated with the Biomedtrix Centerline canine cementless total hip arthroplasty implant (C-THA).

ANIMALS

17 dogs (20 hips) surgically implanted with C-THA to treat coxofemoral pathology.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PROCEDURES

Dogs with C-THA (2015 through 2020) with follow-up of ≥ 6 months were evaluated. Data included signalment, complications, management of complications, radiographs (bone implant interface), and clinical outcomes. Outcomes were assessed radiographically and subjectively via surgeon orthopedic examinations.

RESULTS

15 of 20 (75%) with long term radiographic follow-up had an excellent outcome. 5 hips (25%) had postoperative complications: femoral neck fracture (n = 1; 5%), aseptic loosening (2; 10%), and septic loosening (2; 10%).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

C-THA can restore function in dogs with coxofemoral pathology. This novel procedure showed outcomes comparable to initial reports of other traditional THA implants (cemented, cementless, and hybrid) but complications occurred at a higher rate than recent outcomes of other long-standing THA procedures. Increased case numbers and surgeon experience with this novel implant system may eventually yield results comparable to other accepted THA systems.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To identify and compare clinicopathologic features between dogs with hepatic microvascular dysplasia (HMD) and confirmed portosystemic shunts (PSS) and dogs with HMD alone and to determine whether any discriminating variables can be identified to differentiate the conditions.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

42 dogs with HMD.

Procedure

Medical records of dogs with HMD examined between January 1991 and October 1996 at 3 veterinary hospitals were reviewed.

Results

Compared with dogs with PSS and HMD, dogs with HMD alone were older and had higher values for mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and serum total protein, albumin, creatinine, cholesterol, BUN, and blood glucose concentrations. Compared with dogs with HMD alone, dogs with PSS and HMD had higher values for pre- and postprandial serum bile acid concentrations, WBC, and serum alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. The most discriminating variables for the 2 conditions were serum postprandial bile acid concentrations, MCV, and serum albumin and cholesterol concentrations.

Clinical Implications

The discriminant variables of postprandial serum bile acid concentrations, MCV, and serum albumin and cholesterol concentrations may be useful in distinguishing between dogs with HMD alone and dogs with PSS and HMD. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:218–220)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the dome trochleoplasty procedure and report the short-term outcomes and complications associated with a novel technique to correct patellar luxation and patella alta.

ANIMALS

13 dogs (16 stifle joints) diagnosed with medial patellar luxation with concurrent patella alta in dogs > 20 kg.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION

Medical records of dogs weighing > 20 kg that underwent a dome trochleoplasty for correction of a medial luxating patella were prospectively evaluated. The procedure described involves an osteotomy of the femoral trochlea, which is then translated and/or rotated to correct patellar luxation. Clinical results were assessed using subjective lameness scoring, radiographic evaluation, and the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI) tool.

RESULTS

16 stifle joints were included in this study. The overall complication rate was 50%. Major complications occurred in 43.8% of stifle joints due to pin migration and recurrent luxation of the patella. One dog experienced a catastrophic complication 4 months postoperatively. Uncomplicated osteotomy healing was present in 94% of dogs. The median initial lameness score was 2 (mean, 1.81; range, 0 to 4) and at the final recheck was 0 (mean, 0.31; range, 0 to 2). The CBPI scores were available for 50% of stifle joints. The median initial CBPI score was 45.5 (mean, 48.8; range, 32 to 74) and at the final recheck was 17.5 (mean, 20.5; range, 0 to 43).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The dome trochleoplasty procedure offers an alternative technique for surgical correction of patellar luxation secondary to patella alta in large-breed dogs, but due to its higher complication and reluxation rates, it should be used cautiously and probably in combination with other corrective procedures, such as tibial tuberosity transposition, soft tissue imbrication, and/or soft tissue release rather than as a stand-alone procedure.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records of 23 dogs with unilateral and 3 dogs with bilateral chronic bicipital tenosynovitis were reviewed. Mean age of affected dogs was 4.6 years (SD, 2.0 years), and mean body weight was 32.6 kg (SD, 14.5 kg). Neither a breed nor a gender predilection was detected. All dogs had a history of intermittent or progressive weight-bearing lameness that became worse after exercise. Mean duration of lameness prior to medical or surgical treatment was 6.5 months (range, 0.25 to 24 months), in all dogs, signs of pain were evident during palpation of the biceps tendon within the intertubercular groove. Radiography revealed sclerosis or osteophytosis of the intertubercular groove in all 29 shoulder joints. Mild degenerative joint disease was evident rudiographicully in 17. Arthrography was performed in 12 joints, and in 11 there were irregularities of or filling defects along the biceps tendon. Arthrocentesis was performed on 17 joints; 14 synovial fluid samples had cytologic abnormalities consistent with degenerative joint disease.

Medical treatment, consisting of injection of methylprcdnisolone acetate into the biceps tendon and its synovial sheath, was attempted in 21 of the 29 affected shoulder joints. Surgery, which consisted of tenodesis of the biceps tendon, was attempted in 14 joints; S of these had not been treated medically; the remaining 6 had poor results following medical treatment.

Gross and histologic findings consistent with chrome bicipital tenosynovitis were observed in all 14 joints in which surgery was performed. Seventeen of the medically treated shoulders were available for clinical evaluation, and results were excellent or good in 7. Twelve of the surgically treated shoulders were available for clinical re-evaluation, and results were excellent or good in all 12 (mean duration of follow-up, 5.7 months; range, 2 to 13 months). Owners of all dogs were contacted by telephone. Owners reported that results were excellent or good in 1.0 of the 21 medically treated shoulder joints, and in ail 14 of the, surgically treated shoulder joints (mean duration of follow-up, 30.1 months; range, 4 to 82 months).

Complications developed in 3 of the 4 dogs in which an osteotomy of the greater tubercle had been performed (implant migration, 2 dogs; delayed union, 1 dog). A seroma developed in 1 of the 10 dogs in which tenodesis was performed by laterally transposing the biceps tendon through a hole in the greater tubercle. Complications related to medical treatment were not detected.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate effects of interpleural or IM administration of morphine and interpleural administration of bupivacaine on pulmonary function in dogs that have undergone median sternotomy.

Design

Experimental trial.

Animals

18 healthy dogs.

Procedure

Dogs underwent median sternotomy and were randomly assigned to groups of 6 dogs each. Group-A dogs were given morphine (1.0 mg/kg of body weight) IM; group-B dogs were given 0.5% bupivacaine (1.5 mg/kg) interpleurally; and group-C dogs were given morphine (1.0 mg/kg) interpleurally. Heart rate; systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures; rectal temperature; pain score; and arterial blood gas partial pressures were measured and pulmonary function testing was performed immediately after extubation (time 0) and up to 48 hours later. Serum cortisol and morphine concentrations were measured at time 0 and up to 12 hours after surgery.

Results

There was a significant decrease in pH, Pao2, mean oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, and dynamic compliance; and a significant increase in Paco2. alveolar-arterial difference in partial pressure of oxygen, pulmonary resistance, and work of breathing for dogs in all groups after surgery. Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly increased, compared with preoperative values, in all dogs. Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in group-B dogs between 3 and 5 hours after surgery, compared with group-A dogs.

Conclusions

Median sternotomy was associated with significant alterations in pulmonary function. Effects of interpleural administration of bupivacaine and morphine were similar to effects of IM administration of morphine.(Am J Vet Res 1996;57:375-380)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Eighteen dogs undergoing lateral thoracotomy at the left fifth intercostal space were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 postoperative analgesic treatment groups of 6 dogs each as follows: group A, morphine, 1.0 mg/kg of body weight, im; group B, 0.5% bupivacaine, 1.5 mg/kg given interpleurally; and group C, morphine, 1.0 mg/kg given interpleurally. Heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, arterial blood gas tensions, alveolar-arterial oxygen differences, rectal temperature, pain score, and pulmonary mechanics were recorded hourly for the first 8 hours after surgery, and at postoperative hours 12, 24, and 48. These values were compared with preoperative (control) values for each dog. Serum morphine and cortisol concentrations were measured at 10, 20, and 30 minutes, hours 1 to 8, and 12 hours after treatment administration.

All dogs had significant decreases in pHa, PaO2 , and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, and significant increases in PaCO2 and alveolar-arterial oxygen differences in the postoperative period, but these changes were less severe in group-B dogs. Decreases of 50% in lung compliance, and increases of 100 to 200% in work of breathing and of 185 to 383% in pulmonary resistance were observed in all dogs after surgery. Increases in work of breathing were lower, and returned to preoperative values earlier in group-B dogs. The inspiratory time-to-total respiratory time ratio was significantly higher in group-B dogs during post-operative hours 5 to 8, suggesting improved analgesia. Blood pressure was significantly lower in group-A dogs for the first postoperative hour. Significant decreases in rectal temperature were observed in all dogs after surgery, and hypothermia was prolonged in dogs of groups A and C. Significant differences in pain score were not observed between treatment groups. Cortisol concentration was high in all dogs after anesthesia and surgery, and was significantly increased in group-B dogs at hours 4 and 8. Significant differences in serum morphine concentration between groups A and C were only observed 10 minutes after treatment administration. In general, significant differences in physiologic variables between groups A and C were not observed.

Results of the study indicate that anesthesia and thoracotomy are associated with significant alterations in pulmonary function and lung mechanics. Interpleurally administered bupivacaine appears to be associated with fewer blood gas alterations and earlier return to normal of certain pulmonary function values. Interpleural administration of morphine does not appear to provide any advantages, in terms of analgesia or pulmonary function, compared with its im administration.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research