Objective—To develop a simple extractionless method for detection of rosiglitazone in canine plasma and test the method in a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of rosiglitazone in dogs.
Animals—3 client-owned dogs with cancer.
Procedures—High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed on canine plasma. The 3 dogs with cancer in the pharmacokinetic study were assessed via physical examination and clinicopathologic evaluation and considered otherwise healthy. Food was withheld for 12 hours, and dogs were administered a single dose (4 mg/m2) of rosiglitazone. Plasma was collected at various times, processed, and analyzed for rosiglitazone.
Results—The developed method was robust and detected a minimum of 0.3 ng of rosiglitazone/mL. Mean ± SD maximum plasma concentration was 205.2 ± 79.1 ng/mL, which occurred at 3 ± 1 hours, and mean ± SD elimination half-life was 1.4 ± 0.4 hours. The area under the plasma rosiglitazone concentration-versus-time curve varied widely among the 3 dogs (mean ± SD, 652.2 ± 351.3 ng/h/mL).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A simple extractionless method for detection of rosiglitazone in canine plasma was developed and was validated with excellent sensitivity, accuracy, precision, and recovery. The method enabled unambiguous evaluation and quantitation of rosiglitazone in canine plasma. This method will be useful for pharmacokinetic, bioavailability, or drug-drug interaction studies. Oral rosiglitazone administration was well tolerated in the dogs.
Objective—To assess the agreement and reliability of cardiac measurements obtained with 3 echocardiographic techniques in anesthetized red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).
Animals—10 red-tailed hawks.
Procedures—Transcoelomic, contrast transcoelomic, and transesophageal echocardiographic evaluations of the hawks were performed, and cineloops of imaging planes were recorded. Three observers performed echocardiographic measurements of cardiac variables 3 times on 3 days. The order in which hawks were assessed and echocardiographic techniques were used was randomized. Results were analyzed with linear mixed modeling, agreement was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients, and variation was estimated with coefficients of variation.
Results—Significant differences were evident among the 3 echocardiographic methods for most measurements, and the agreement among findings was generally low. Interobserver agreement was generally low to medium. Intraobserver agreement was generally medium to high. Overall, better agreement was achieved for the left ventricular measurements and for the transesophageal approach than for other measurements and techniques.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Echocardiographic measurements in hawks were not reliable, except when the left ventricle was measured by the same observer. Furthermore, cardiac morphometric measurements may not be clinically important. When measurements are required, one needs to consider that follow-up measurements should be performed by the same echocardiographer and should show at least a 20% difference from initial measurements to be confident that any difference is genuine.
Procedures—16-slice CT scanning was used to measure the apparent diameter of the ascending aorta, abdominal aorta, pulmonary arteries, and brachiocephalic trunk. Before scanning, all birds underwent ECG and echocardiographic assessment and were considered free of detectable cardiovascular diseases. Each bird was anesthetized, and a precontrast helical CT scan was performed. Peak aortic enhancement was established with a test bolus technique via dynamic axial CT scan over a predetermined single slice. An additional bolus of contrast medium was then injected, and a helical CT-angiography scan was performed immediately afterward. Arterial diameter measurements were obtained by 2 observers via various windows before and after injection, and intra- and interobserver agreement was assessed.
Results—Reference limits were determined for arterial diameter measurements before and after contrast medium administration in pulmonary, mediastinal, and manual angiography windows. Ratios of vertebral body diameter to keel length were also calculated. Intraobserver agreement was high (concordance correlation coefficients ≥ 0.95); interobserver agreement was medium to high (intraclass correlation coefficients ≥ 0.65).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CT-angiography was safe and is of potential diagnostic value in parrots. We recommend performing the angiography immediately after IV injection of 3 mL of iohexol/kg. Arterial diameter measurements at the described locations were reliable.
Case Description—4 racehorses were examined because of markedly abnormal behavior following administration of fluphenazine decanoate.
Clinical Findings—Clinical signs included restlessness, agitation, profuse sweating, hypermetria, aimless circling, intense pawing and striking with the thoracic limbs, and rhythmic swinging of the head and neck alternating with episodes of severe stupor. Fluphenazine was detected in serum or plasma from all 4 horses. The dose of fluphenazine decanoate administered to 3 of the 4 horses was within the range (25 to 50 mg) routinely administered to adult humans.
Treatment and Outcome—In 2 horses, there was no response to IV administration of diphenhydramine hydrochloride, but the abnormal behavior in these 2 horses appeared to resolve following administration of benztropine mesylate, and both horses returned to racing. The other 2 horses responded to diphenhydramine administration. One returned to racing. The other was euthanized because of severe neurologic signs, respiratory failure, and acute renal failure.
Clinical Relevance—Findings indicate that adverse extrapyramidal effects may occur in horses given fluphenazine decanoate. These effects appear to be unpredictable and may be severe and life threatening. Use of fluphenazine decanoate as an anxiolytic in performance horses is not permitted in many racing and horse show jurisdictions, and analytic procedures are now available to detect the presence of fluphenazine in serum or plasma.