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- Author or Editor: Daniel P. Shaw x
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Objective—To determine reference values for kaolin-activated thromboelastography in echocardiographically normal cats.
Animals—30 healthy cats without evidence of cardiomyopathy on echocardiographic examination.
Procedures—All cats underwent echocardiographic examination, the findings of which were reviewed by a board-certified cardiologist. Cats that struggled (n = 10) received mild sedation with butorphanol and midazolam IM to permit phlebotomy without interruption in jugular venous blood flow. Blood samples were collected for analysis of thromboelastography variables, PCV, total solids concentration, platelet count, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, fibrinogen concentration, and antithrombin concentration.
Results—All 4 thromboelastography variables had < 5% mean intra-assay variability. Mean values were as follows: reaction time, 4.3 minutes; clotting time, 1.6 minutes; α angle, 66.5°; and maximum amplitude, 56.4 mm. Compared with nonsedated cats, cats that required sedation had a significantly shorter clotting time and greater α angle, whereas reaction time and maximum amplitude were not significantly different.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Kaolin-activated thromboelastography was a reliable test with unremarkable intra-assay variability in echocardiographically normal cats. Sedation may affect certain thromboelastography variables, but the effect is unlikely to be clinically important. It remains unknown whether subclinical cardiomyopathy has a significant effect on thromboelastography variables in cats.
Objective—To determine the susceptibility of ducks to avian pneumovirus (APV) of turkey origin.
Animals—30 Pekin ducks that were 2 weeks old.
Procedure—Ducks were assigned to 3 groups (10 ducks/group). Ducks of groups 1 and 2 were inoculated (day 0) with 200 µl of cell-culture fluid containing APV of turkey origin (105.5 median tissue-culture infective dose/ml) by the oculonasal (group 1) or oral (group 2) route. Ducks of group 3 served as noninoculated control birds. Two ducks from each group were euthanatized 3, 6, 9, 15, and 21 days after inoculation. Blood samples, tissue samples from the lungs, trachea, nasal turbinates, duodenum, diverticulum vitellinum (Meckel's diverticulum), and cecum, and swab specimens from the choana, cloaca, and trachea were obtained from all birds during necropsy and examined for APV by use of reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), virus isolation, and histologic examination. Blood samples also were examined for APV antibodies, using an ELISA.
Results—Tissue samples obtained up to 21 days after inoculation had positive results when tested by use of RT-PCR. Virus was isolated from nasal turbinates of birds inoculated via the oculonasal route. Serum samples obtained 15 and 21 days after inoculation had positive results when tested for APV-specific antibody. Clinical signs of disease were not observed in ducks inoculated with APV of turkey origin.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ducks inoculated with APV of turkey origin may not develop clinical signs of disease, but they are suspected to play a role as nonclinical carriers of APV. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:991–992)