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Objective—To determine effects of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) on canine colonic smooth muscle.

Sample Population—Colonic tissue obtained from 14 healthy dogs.

Procedure—Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA; acetate, propionate, and butyrate; 1 to 100 mmol/L)-induced contractions were compared with responses obtained with acetylmethylcholine (AMCh; 10-4 mol/L). Roles of enteric neurons, cholinergic receptors, calcium stores in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and extracellular calcium in the SCFA-induced responses were investigated by incubating muscle strips with tetrodotoxin (1 µmol/L), atropine (1 µmol/L), ryanodine (10 µmol/L), nifedipine (1 µmol/L), ethylene glycol-bis (β-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetate (EGTA; 0.1 mmol/L), or an extracellular calciumdepleted (zero extracellular calcium) solution prior to the addition of propionate or butyrate.

Results—Incubation with SCFA elicited isometric stress responses (0.25 to 2.15 × 104 N/m2) in colonic longitudinal smooth muscle. Maximal responses to butyrate and propionate (50 mmol/L) were 37 and 23%, respectively, of the maximal AMCh response. Acetate was least effective in stimulating contractile responses. Tetrodotoxin and atropine did not affect SCFA-induced contractions. Nifedipine and zero extracellular calcium solution abolished responses to butyrate and propionate, whereas EGTA attenuated (> 60%) but did not abolish those responses. Ryanodine did not affect SCFA-induced contractile responses. The SCFA did not affect colonic circular smooth muscle.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The SCFA stimulate longitudinal but not circular colonic smooth muscle contractions via a direct effect on smooth muscle. The mechanism of the SCFA effect appears to involve the influx of extracellular calcium. These findings may account for some of the effects of canine colonisc motility. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:295–300 )

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To describe complications and outcomes of dogs undergoing unilateral thyroidectomy for the treatment of thyroid tumors.


156 dogs undergoing unilateral thyroidectomy for a naturally occurring thyroid tumor.


Dogs that underwent a unilateral thyroidectomy in 2003 through 2015 were included in a multi-institutional retrospective study. For each dog, information gathered through evaluation of electronic and paper records included perioperative complications, short-term outcome (survival to discharge from the hospital vs nonsurvival), and long-term outcome (survival time).


In the perioperative period, complications occurred in 31 of the 156 (19.9%) dogs; hemorrhage was the most common intraoperative complication (12 [7.7%] dogs). Five of 156 (3.2%) dogs received a blood transfusion; these 5 dogs were among the 12 dogs that had hemorrhage listed as an intraoperative complication. Immediately after surgery, the most common complication was aspiration pneumonia (5 [3.2%] dogs). One hundred fifty-three of 156 (98.1%) dogs that underwent unilateral thyroidectomy survived to discharge from the hospital. One hundred-thirteen dogs were lost to follow-up; from the available data, the median survival time was 911 days (95% confidence interval, 704 to 1,466 days).


Results indicated that unilateral thyroidectomy in dogs with a naturally occurring thyroid tumor was associated with a perioperative mortality rate of 1.9% and a complication rate of 19.9% and that hemorrhage and aspiration pneumonia were the most common complications. Long-term survival of dogs undergoing unilateral thyroidectomy for the treatment of thyroid tumors was not uncommon.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association