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A 7-year-old 35-kg (77-lb) neutered male Labrador Retriever was evaluated because of a 1-month history of a rapidly growing mass associated with the right caudal aspect of the thoracic wall.


CT examination revealed an aggressive, osteolytic mass lesion centered around the ventral aspect of the right ninth rib with osteolysis of that rib and focal invasion into the right external abdominal oblique muscle. Preoperative cytologic and histologic findings were most consistent with a chondrosarcoma.


The mass and the eighth, ninth, and tenth ribs were resected, and thoracic wall reconstruction was performed with a novel surgical technique involving lateralization of the diaphragm. The dog recovered rapidly and without complications other than a small seroma; no paradoxical chest movement developed, and the cosmetic outcome was good. An excellent quality of life was reported after surgery until the dog was euthanized because of underlying disease progression 6 months later.


Diaphragmatic lateralization was a simple method of caudal thoracic wall reconstruction that had good clinical results in this case. Research is needed to further assess the safety, reliability, and potential complications of this procedure in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine indications for cystostomy tube use in dogs and cats, complications associated with their use, and outcome of dogs and cats in which cystostomy tubes had been inserted.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—37 dogs and 39 cats.

Procedures—Information was obtained from medical records.Long-term follow-up information was obtained by use of a client questionnaire.

Results—Indications for cystostomy tube placement were bladder dysfunction, urinary tract rupture, obstructive urinary tract neoplasia, urinary diversion following urogenital surgery, obstructive urolithiasis, and feline lower urinary tract disease.Median time tubes were in place was 11 days, but duration of tube use was significantly longer for animals with blad-der dysfunction than for animals with urinary tract trauma, urinary diversion, or urinary tract obstruction.Thirty-seven (49%) animals had tube complications.Development of complica tions was not significantly associated with species, age, body weight, duration of tube use, or tube type, except that animals were significantly more likely to develop complications following long-rather than short-term use.In 42 animals, the underlying condition resolved and the tube was removed; 22 animals died or were euthanatized with the tube in place.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that cystostomy tubes may be used for animals with various conditions related to problems with urine outflow.Nearly half the animals in the study developed complications related to the cystostomy tube, suggesting that potential complications should be discussed with owners prior to tube placement. However, most complications were easily resolved.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To assess the effects of sample size and location, skin tension lines, surgeon, and formalin fixation on the extent of shrinkage that occurs in excised canine skin samples.

Animals—Cadavers of 4 adult purpose-bred mixed-breed hound dogs with grossly normal skin.

Procedures—54 circular areas of skin (2-, 4-, and 6-cm-diameter samples from each of 9 body regions on each side) were excised by 1 of 2 surgeons from each cadaver. The diameter of each sample was measured in 4 orientations (parallel to previously reported tension lines, perpendicular to tension lines, in a dorsoventral orientation, and in a craniocaudal [or rostrocaudal] orientation) at 3 time points (before and immediately after excision and after 24 hours of formalin fixation).

Results—216 samples were measured in all 4 orientations at all 3 time points. For all samples, mean ± SE decrease in diameter after fixation, compared with pre-excision findings, was 6.2 ± 0.7 mm. No significant correlations were found between percentage of skin shrinkage and surgeon, body side or region, or measurement orientation in relation to skin tension lines. The mean sample diameter immediately after excision differed significantly from that before excision (mean diameter decrease, 5.5 ± 0.7 mm). Overall, sample diameter immediately after excision and after formalin fixation did not differ.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The extent of shrinkage of skin samples from hound cadavers that occurred immediately after excision was notable. A better understanding of the effectors of excised skin sample shrinkage is needed, especially when histopathologic findings provide guidelines for surgical margins.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research