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  • Author or Editor: Daniel M. Levine x
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Objective—To evaluate the effect of a phospholipid emulsion (PLE) on the initial response of horses to administration of endotoxin.

Animals—12 healthy adult horses.

Procedures—Horses were assigned to 2 treatment groups (6 horses/group). The control group was administered 1 L of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, and the treated group was administered PLE (200 mg/kg, IV); treatments were administered during a period of 120 minutes. An infusion of endotoxin was initiated in both groups starting 1 hour after initiation of the saline or PLE solutions. Physical examination and hemodynamic variables were recorded, and blood samples were analyzed for concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-6, thromboxane B2 (TxB2), 6 keto-prostaglandin F (PGF)1α, total leukocyte count, and PLE concentrations. An ANOVA was used to detect significant differences.

Results—Administration of PLE resulted in significantly lower rectal temperature, heart rate, cardiac output, right atrial pressure, and pulmonary artery pressure and higher total leukocyte counts in treated horses, compared with values for control horses. The TNF-α concentration was significantly less in treated horses than in control horses. The TxB2 and 6 keto- PGF1α concentrations were significantly different between treated and control horses at 30 minutes (TxB2) and at 30 and 60 minutes (6 keto-PGF1α).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prior infusion of PLE in horses administered a low dose of endotoxin decreased rectal temperature, heart rate, pulmonary artery pressure, and TNF-α concentrations. Results of this study support further evaluation of PLE for use in the treatment of horses with endotoxemia. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1370–1378)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To develop a low-technology system that can be used by dog owners to obtain morphological and mobility measurements in companion dogs as candidate components of an eventual canine frailty scale.


57 adult (≥ 1-year-old) dogs enrolled by 43 owners.


Morphological measurements of dogs were performed by investigators and dog owners. Dogs participated in timed in-clinic mobility trials across a flat surface (on-leash trial with the owner, on-leash trial with the investigator, and off-leash trial) and on stairs; each trial was repeated 3 times. Owners were asked to conduct a second stair trial at home 2 weeks later. Agreement between owner- and investigator-obtained measurements was assessed with Shrout-Fleiss intraclass correlation coefficients and paired t tests. Age, quartile of projected percentage of mean life span attained (adjusted for body weight), and height were evaluated as predictors of speed and stride length in mobility trials with linear regression and Spearman rank correlation analysis.


Agreement between owner- and investigator-obtained morphological measurements was strong. Age was a weak but significant predictor of decreased dog speed in mobility trials (adjusted R 2, 0.10 to 0.23). Speed decreased significantly with increasing quartile of projected life span attained. A linear regression model that included height and age predicted dog speed better than models with age or height alone.


Morphological and mobility trial measurements can be obtained by dog owners with minimal training. Low-technology measurements of mobility trial speed offer potential as components in a future scoring scale for canine frailty.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To compare clinical outcome in dogs with serologically diagnosed acquired myasthenia gravis (MG) treated with pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) with that of dogs treated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and PYR (MMF + PYR).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—27 dogs.

Procedures—Medical records from August 1999 through February 2008 were reviewed to identify dogs with serologically diagnosed acquired MG treated with PYR or MMF + PYR. Data collected for each dog included signalment, whether the dog had megaesophagus or pneumonia (or both), thyroid hormone concentration, remission, time to remission, and survival time. Rates for detection of clinical signs and survival time were compared. Survival time was estimated via the Kaplan-Meier method. Influence of drug treatment protocol on likelihood of remission, time to remission, and survival time was examined. Effects of MMF treatment, megaesophagus, pneumonia, and low serum thyroid hormone concentration on time to remission and survival time were also analyzed.

Results—12 dogs were treated with PYR, and 15 were treated with MMF + PYR. Mortality rates were 33% (PYR) and 40% (MMF + PYR). There was pharmacological remission in 5 and 6 dogs in the PYR and MMF + PYR groups, respectively. No significant differences were detected between treatment groups for remission rate, time to remission, or survival time. Megaesophagus, pneumonia, and low serum thyroid hormone concentration had no significant effect on time to remission or survival time for either treatment group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The results did not support routine use of MMF for the treatment of dogs with acquired MG.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association