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  • Author or Editor: Daniel L. Grooms x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether serologic evaluation of 5 unvaccinated 6- to 12-month-old heifers is a valid method for identifying herds that contain cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV).

Animals—14 dairy herds with a history of BVDV infection, with health problems consistent with BVDV infection, or at risk for contracting BVDV infection.

Procedure—5 unvaccinated 6- to 12-month-old heifers were randomly selected from each herd. Neutralizing antibody titers for type-I and -II BVDV were determined. A herd was classified as likely to contain PI cattle when at least 3/5 heifers had antibody titers ≥ 128. Virus isolation was performed on all cattle to identify PI cattle. Genotype of isolated viruses was determined by nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

Results—6 of 14 herds contained PI cattle. Sensitivity and specificity of serologic evaluation of 5 heifers for identifying these herds were 66 and 100%, respectively. In herds that contained PI cattle, the predominant BVDV titer in the tested heifers corresponded to the genotype of the isolated virus.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serologic evaluation of unvaccinated 6- to 12- month-old heifers is an accurate method for identifying herds containing PI cattle. Both type-I and -II BVDV antibody titers should be determined to prevent herd misclassification. The genotype of BVDV found in PI cattle can be predicted by the predominant neutralizing antibody titers found in tested heifers. Serologic evaluation of 5 unvaccinated heifers can be used to determine whether a herd is likely to contain PI cattle. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:499–505)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether vaccine virus can be detected by use of reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assays for pooled and individual skin samples obtained from cattle after vaccination with a commercially available modified-live bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccine.

Animals—12 BVDV-seropositive steer calves and 7 BVDV-seronegative (antibody titer < 1:4) heifers; all cattle were free of persistent infection with BVDV.

Procedures—2 experiments were conducted. Cattle were vaccinated on day 0 with a commercially available modified-live BVDV vaccine. Skin samples were collected on days 0, 3 to 14, 16, and 18 for virus detection by use of RT-PCR assay on individual and pooled samples. In addition, blood samples and nasal swab specimens were collected for virus isolation.

Results—All cattle, regardless of serologic status, had negative results for BVDV as determined by use of RT-PCR assay of individual and pooled skin samples. Virus was detected via virus isolation in serum or the buffy coat in 5 of 7 heifers that were seronegative when vaccinated.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These findings indicated that it would be unlikely to detect BVDV vaccine virus in skin by use of RT-PCR assay of individual or pooled skin samples obtained from cattle after vaccination with a commercially available modified-live BVDV vaccine. Veterinarians and producers should be confident that positive test results for BVDV on skin samples would not likely be caused by the vaccination virus after administration of a modified-live virus vaccine.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) that lack virus detectable in serum by use of the immunoperoxidase microtiter assay (IPMA) can transmit the virus to susceptible herdmates and determine prevalence of these cattle.

Design—Clinical trial and serologic survey.

Sample Population—2 cattle and 1,952 blood samples.

Procedure—A persistently infected cow in which virus could not be detected in serum was housed with a BVDV-seronegative steer. Blood and nasal swab specimens were tested via virus isolation and serum virus neutralization. Parallel WBC preparations and sera from blood samples of 1,952 adult cows were screened for BVDV by use of IPMA.

Results—The steer seroconverted to BVDV within 4 weeks of contact with the cow. Virus was detected in sera and WBC of 5 adult cows that were verified as persistently infected by retest 3 weeks later. Cattle persistently infected with BVDV in which virus could not be detected in both serum and WBC by use of IPMA were not found.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Cattle persistently infected with BVDV in which virus cannot be detected in serum by use of IPMA may serve as virus reservoirs for infecting susceptible cattle. Persistent infection was detected at a prevalence of 0.26%. Screening adult cattle by use of IPMA on serum samples appears to be a reliable means of detecting persistent infection with BVDV. Prevalence of cattle persistently infected with BVDV that have negative results of IPMA on serum is extremely low. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:629–631)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To identify morphologic differences in ovaries from cows persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and determine ovarian cell types infected in these cows.

Design

A comparative study of ovaries in cattle persistently infected with BVDV and cattle not persistently infected with BVDV, using morphologic and immunohistochemical analysis.

Animals

6 postpubertal cows persistently infected with BVDV and 6 postpubertal cows not persistently infected with BVDV.

Procedure

Ovaries were compared morphologically by counting the number of normal structures present on 3 histologic sections taken from each ovary. Immunohistochemistry was accomplished, using an indirect, monoclonal antibody-linked, avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex procedure.

Results

Significant (P < 0.01) decrease in the number of tertiary follicles, graafian follicles, atretic follicles, and corpus hemorrhagicum/luteum/albicans was observed in cows persistently infected with BVDV. No difference in numbers of primordial or secondary follicles was observed. Immunostaining of BVDV antigen in luteal cells and macrophage-like cells was evident in ovaries from cows persistently infected with BVDV.

Conclusions

Cows persistently infected with BVDV appear to have significant morphologic changes in their ovaries that suggest reduction in normal ovarian activities. Furthermore, BVDV antigen can be identified in specific ovarian cell types in cattle persistently infected with BVDV.

Clinical Relevance

The changes observed may reduce reproductive performance in cows persistently infected with BVDV, and may be of importance when trying to salvage valuable genetic material from persistently infected cows through embryo transfer. It is yet to be determined whether similar findings are true in cows acutely infected with BVDV. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:830–833)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate 2 rapid, patient-side assays for detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in feces from neonatal calves with diarrhea.

Design—Diagnostic test evaluation.

Sample Population—Fecal samples from 96 neonatal (1 to 30 days old) calves with diarrhea.

Procedure—Results of the rapid assays were compared with results of microscopic examination of fecal smears that had been stained with diamant fuchsin stain.

Results—One of the rapid assays correctly identified 56 of 62 (90%) fecal samples positive for C parvum oocysts and 33 of 34 (97%) fecal samples negative for oocysts. The other assay correctly identified 53 of 62 (85%) fecal samples positive for oocysts and 33 of 34 (97%) fecal samples negative for oocysts.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that these 2 rapid assays are accurate when used to detect C parvum in fecal samples from neonatal calves with diarrhea. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1090–1092)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether viral involvement with platelets obtained from cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is associated with altered platelet function or decreased platelet counts.

Sample Population—Platelets obtained from 8 cattle PI with BVDV and 6 age-, sex-, and breed-matched uninfected control cattle.

Procedure—Manual platelet counts were determined, and platelet function was assessed through optical aggregometry by use of the aggregation agonists ADP and platelet-activating factor. Identification of BVDV in serum and preparations of purified platelets was determined by use of virus isolation tests.

Results—No significant difference in platelet counts was detected between cattle PI with BVDV and control cattle. In response to the aggregation agonists, maximum aggregation percentage and slope of the aggregation curve were not significantly different between cattle PI with BVDV and control cattle. We isolated BVDV from serum of all PI cattle and from purified platelets of 6 of 8 PI cattle, but BVDV was not isolated from serum or platelets of control cattle.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Isolation of BVDV from platelets in the peripheral circulation of cattle immunotolerant to BVDV does not result in altered platelet function or decreases in platelet counts. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1738–1742)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether an interferon (IFN)-γ response sufficient to categorize cattle as positive for tuberculosis can be detected in blood collected at commencement of exsanguination at slaughter.

Animals—15 Holstein cows.

Procedures—12 cows were experimentally sensitized by SC injection with inactivated Mycobacterium bovis in mineral oil, which induced an immune response that mimicked natural infection with M bovis. Three nonsensitized control cows were injected SC with mineral oil alone. By 5 weeks after injection, only the 12 sensitized cows had positive results for tuberculosis with whole blood IFN-γ assay. At that time, all 15 cows were sent to slaughter and samples of blood were collected from each cow immediately before stunning and at commencement of exsanguination (within 90 seconds after stunning). A whole blood IFN-γ assay was performed on the samples. Conditional probability and paired t tests were used to analyze changes in the categorical test interpretation and qualitative IFN-γ production, respectively.

Results—All 12 sensitized cows had positive results for tuberculosis in samples obtained immediately before stunning, and 9 retained positive results for samples obtained at commencement of exsanguination. There was a significant decrease in the mean background-corrected IFN-γ ELISA optical density values for samples obtained at commencement of exsanguination.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IFN-γ response sufficient to classify cattle as positive for tuberculosis could be detected in blood collected at commencement of exsanguination. These findings support further development and use of the IFN-γ assay on blood samples collected at exsanguination as part of a bovine tuberculosis surveillance program.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of a commercially available killed bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccine to protect against fetal infection in pregnant cattle continually exposed to cattle persistently infected with the BVDV.

Animals—60 crossbred beef heifers and 4 cows persistently infected with BVDV.

Procedures—Beef heifers were allocated to 2 groups. One group was vaccinated twice (21-day interval between the initial and booster vaccinations) with a commercially available vaccine against BVDV, and the other group served as nonvaccinated control cattle. Estrus was induced, and the heifers were bred. Pregnancy was confirmed by transrectal palpation. Four cows persistently infected with BVDV were housed with 30 pregnant heifers (15 each from the vaccinated and nonvaccinated groups) from day 52 to 150 of gestation. Fetuses were then harvested by cesarean section and tested for evidence of BVDV infection.

Results—1 control heifer aborted after introduction of the persistently infected cows. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from 14 of 14 fetuses obtained via cesarean section from control heifers but from only 4 of 15 fetuses obtained via cesarean section from vaccinated heifers; these proportions differed significantly.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A commercially available multivalent vaccine containing an inactivated BVDV fraction significantly reduced the risk of fetal infection with BVDV in heifers continually exposed to cattle persistently infected with BVDV. However, not all vaccinated cattle were protected, which emphasizes the need for biosecurity measures and elimination of cattle persistently infected with BVDV in addition to vaccination within a herd.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To estimate herd-level sensitivity (HSe), specificity (HSp), and predictive values for a positive (HPVP) and negative (HPVN) test result for several testing scenarios for detection of tuberculosis in cattle by use of simulation modeling.

Sample Population—Empirical distributions of all herds (15,468) and herds in a 10-county area (1,016) in Michigan.

Procedures—5 test scenarios were simulated: scenario 1, serial interpretation of the caudal fold tuberculin (CFT) test and comparative cervical test (CCT); scenario 2, serial interpretation of the CFT test and CCT, microbial culture for mycobacteria, and polymerase chain reaction assay; scenario 3, same as scenario 2 but specificity was fixed at 1.0; and scenario 4, sensitivity was 0.9 (scenario 4a) or 0.95 (scenario 4b), and specificity was fixed at 1.0.

Results—Estimates for HSe were reasonably high, ranging between 0.712 and 0.840. Estimates for HSp were low when specificity was not fixed at 1.0. Estimates of HPVP were low for scenarios 1 and 2 (0.042 and 0.143, respectively) but increased to 1.0 when specificity was fixed at 1.0. The HPVN remained high for all 5 scenarios, ranging between 0.995 and 0.997. As herd size increased, HSe increased and HSp and HPVP decreased. However, fixing specificity at 1.0 had only minor effects on HSp and HPVN, but HSe was low when the herd size was small.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tests used for detecting cattle herds infected with tuberculosis work well on a herd basis. Herds with < approximately 100 cattle should be tested more frequently or for a longer duration than larger herds to ensure that these small herds are free of tuberculosis. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1285–1291)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether cattle testing positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosisas determined by microbial culture of feces or antibody ELISA were more likely to have false-positive responses on the caudal fold tuberculin (CFT) test or interferon-γ (IFN-γ) assay for Mycobacterium bovis than cattle testing negative for M paratuberculosis.

Animals—1,043 cattle from 10 herds in Michigan.

Procedure—Feces and blood samples for plasma were collected from cattle ≥ 24 months old on the day the CFT test was read. Fecal samples were submitted for microbial culture for M paratuberculosis. Plasma samples were tested for antibody against M paratuberculosis, and IFN-γ after stimulation with purified protein derivative tuberculin from M bovis or M avium.

Results—Of 1,043 cattle, 180 (17.3%) had positive CFT test results (suspects) and 8 (0.8%) had positive IFN-γ assay results after stimulation with purified protein derivative tuberculin from M bovis. Forty-five (4.3%) and 115 (11.0%) cattle tested positive for M paratuberculosis as determined by microbial culture of feces and antibody ELISA, respectively. Cattle with positive responses for M paratuberculosis appeared to have an increased likelihood of false-positive results on the CFT test, although this association was not significant.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—No significant association was detected among cattle testing positive for M paratuberculosis as determined by microbial culture of feces and antibody ELISA and positive CFT test and IFN-γ assay results for M bovis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:429–435)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association