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To develop and assess a novel ex vivo corneal culture technique involving an agarose-based dome scaffold (ABDS) for use as a model of in vivo corneal wound healing in dogs and rabbits.


Corneas from clinically normal dogs (paired corneas from 8 dogs and 8 single corneas) and rabbits (21 single corneas).


8 single dog corneas (DCs), 1 DC from each pair, and 10 rabbit corneas (RCs) were wounded with an excimer laser; 1 DC from each pair and 11 RCs remained unwounded. Corneas were cultured for 21 days on ABDSs (8 pairs of DCs and all RCs) or on flat-topped scaffolds (8 single DCs). The surface area of corneal fluorescein retention was measured every 6 (DCs) or 12 (RCs) hours until full corneal epithelialization was detected. Changes in corneal clarity were evaluated at 0, 7, 14, and 21 days.


Median time to full epithelialization for wounded dog and rabbit corneas was 48 and 60 hours, respectively; among wounded DCs, time to full epithelization did not differ by scaffold type. After 21 days of culture on ABDSs, all DCs and RCs that epithelialized developed a circular, diffuse, cloud-like pattern of optical haze, whereas DCs cultured on flat-topped scaffolds developed a focal, crater-like region of optical haze. All corneas on the ABDSs maintained convex curvature throughout the study.


Wounded ex vivo DCs and RCs cultured on ABDSs reliably epithelialized, formed optical haze (consistent with in vivo wound healing), and maintained convex curvature. This culture technique may be adaptable to other species.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To conduct a retrospective multi-institutional study reporting short- and long-term outcomes of adrenalectomy in patients presenting with acute hemorrhage secondary to spontaneous adrenal rupture.


59 dogs and 3 cats.


Medical records of dogs and cats undergoing adrenalectomy between 2000 and 2021 for ruptured adrenal masses were reviewed. Data collected included clinical presentation, preoperative diagnostics, surgical report, anesthesia and hospitalization findings, histopathology, adjuvant treatments, and long-term outcome (recurrence, metastasis, and survival).


Median time from hospital admission to surgery was 3 days, with 34% of surgeries being performed emergently (within 1 day of presentation). Need for intraoperative blood transfusion was significantly associated with emergent surgery and presence of active intraoperative hemorrhage. The short-term (≤ 14 days) complication and mortality rates were 42% and 21%, respectively. Negative prognostic factors for short-term survival included emergent surgery, intraoperative hypotension, and performing additional surgical procedures. Diagnoses included adrenocortical neoplasia (malignant [41%], benign [12%], and undetermined [5%]), pheochromocytoma (38%), a single case of adrenal fibrosis and hemorrhage (2%), and a single case of hemangiosarcoma (2%). Local recurrence and metastasis of adrenocortical carcinoma were confirmed in 1 and 3 cases, respectively. Overall median survival time was 574 days and 900 days when short-term mortality was censored. No significant relationship was found between histopathological diagnosis and survival.


Adrenalectomy for ruptured adrenal gland masses was associated with similar short- and long-term outcomes as compared with previously reported nonruptured cases. If hemodynamic stability can be achieved, delaying surgery and limiting additional procedures appear indicated to optimize short-term survival.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association