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CASE DESCRIPTION A5.5-year-old sexually intact male Bull Terrier was referred for evaluation because of sudden facial swelling and an inability to close its mouth.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed bilaterally elevated nictitating membranes, an inability to adduct the mandible without assistance, and severe, diffuse, firm masticatory muscle swelling. Computed tomographic examination of the head revealed symmetric bilateral enlargement of the temporalis, masseter, and pterygoid muscles with heterogeneous contrast enhancement. Intracompartmental pressures in the left and right temporalis muscles as measured with an invasive arterial blood pressure transducer were 72 and 96 mm Hg, respectively.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Emergent fasciotomy of the temporalis and masseter muscles was performed, followed by medical management with corticosteroids and analgesics. The diffuse facial swelling resolved within 1 week after surgery. Results of serologic testing for antibody against masticatory 2M muscle fibers were negative. Results of histologic examination of temporalis muscle specimens were consistent with mild to moderate multifocal neutrophilic and histiocytic myositis with myofiber degeneration and necrosis.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Acute compartmental syndrome should be considered as a differential diagnosis for dogs with a sudden onset of severe skeletal muscle swelling, signs of pain, and dysfunction. Findings for this dog with acute compartmental syndrome isolated to the masticatory muscles suggested that emergent fasciotomy followed by medical management may be an effective technique for treatment of this rare disease in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



A 3-year-old 5-kg sexually intact female silvery langur housed in a single-species group at a zoological institution was presented because of acute trauma to the left forelimb.


Radiography of the left forelimb revealed a type II Monteggia fracture (proximal ulnar fracture with cranial displacement and caudal luxation of the radial head). During surgery, disruption of the annular ligament and rupture of the lateral collateral ligament were noted.


The langur underwent open reduction and internal fixation of the ulnar fracture and placement of a radioulnar positional screw, a prosthetic lateral collateral ligament, and a temporary hinged type 1A external skeletal fixator. The langur was returned to group housing, underwent behavioral training, and was periodically anesthetized for physical therapy sessions to improve range of motion of the left elbow joint. The external skeletal fixator was removed 4 weeks after surgery, and the radioulnar positional screw was removed 6 weeks after surgery. Three months after surgery, the range of motion of the langur’s left elbow joint was considered normal, and the animal returned to normal activity.


For the captive silvery langur of the present report, surgical stabilization and postoperative management of a type II Monteggia fracture of the left forelimb were successful with recovery of elbow joint function. These techniques may be applied to other captive nonhuman primates, including those that brachiate or are members of social species that must be housed with conspecifics in the postoperative period to maintain group dynamics.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association