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- Author or Editor: Daniel H. Gould x
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Objective—To analyze the sulfur content of water and forage samples from a geographically diverse sample of beef cow-calf operations in the United States and to estimate frequency and distribution of premises where forage and water resources could result in consumption of hazardous amounts of sulfur by cattle.
Sample Population—709 forage samples from 678 beef cow-calf operations and individual water samples from 498 operations in 23 states.
Procedure—Sulfur content of forage samples and sulfate concentration of water samples were measured. Total sulfur intake was estimated for pairs of forage and water samples.
Results—Total sulfur intake was estimated for 454 pairs of forage and water samples. In general, highest forage sulfur contents did not coincide with highest water sulfate concentrations. Overall, 52 of the 454 (11.5%) sample pairs were estimated to yield total sulfur intake (as a percentage of dry matter) ≥ 0.4%, assuming water intake during conditions of high ambient temperature. Most of these premises were in north-central (n = 19) or western (19) states.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that on numerous beef cow-calf operations throughout the United States, consumption of forage and water could result in excessively high sulfur intake. All water sources and dietary components should be evaluated when assessing total sulfur intake. Knowledge of total sulfur intake may be useful in reducing the risk of sulfur-associated health and performance problems in beef cattle. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:673–677)
Objective—To evaluate viral and bacterial respiratory pathogens and Mycoplasma spp isolated from lung tissues of cattle with acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) and cattle that had died as a result of other causes.
Sample Population—186 samples of lung tissues collected from cattle housed in 14 feedlots in the western United States.
Procedure—Lung tissues were collected during routine postmortem examination and submitted for histologic, microbiologic, and toxicologic examinations. Histologic diagnoses were categorized for AIP, bronchopneumonia (BP), control samples (no evidence of disease), and other disorders.
Results—Cattle affected with AIP had been in feedlots for a mean of 127.2 days before death, which was longer than cattle with BP and control cattle. Detection of a viral respiratory pathogen (eg, bovine respiratory syncytial virus [BRSV], bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, or parainfluenza virus 3) was not associated with histologic category of lung tissues. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus was detected in 8.3% of AIP samples and 24.0% of control samples. Histologic category was associated with isolation of an aerobic bacterial agent and Mycoplasma spp. Cattle with BP were at greatest risk for isolation of an aerobic bacterial agent and Mycoplasma spp.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of these results suggests that AIP in feedlot cattle is not a consequence of infection with BRSV. The increased risk of isolation of an aerobic bacterial agent from cattle with AIP, compared with control cattle, may indicate a causal role or an opportunistic infection that follows development of AIP. (Am J Vet Res 2001; 62:1519–1524)
Objective—To determine historical, physical examination, clinicopathologic, and postmortem findings in horses with putative uremic encephalopathy.
Animals—5 horses with renal failure and neurologic disease not attributable to abnormalities in any other organ system.
Procedure—Medical records from 1978 to 1998 were examined for horses with renal disease and neurologic signs not attributable to primary neurologic, hepatic, or other diseases. Signalment, history, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, renal ultrasonographic findings, and postmortem data were reviewed.
Results—Of 332 horses with renal disease, 5 met selection criteria. Historical findings, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, ultrasonographic data, and postmortem findings were consistent with chronic renal failure. Swollen astrocytes were detected in all 4 horses examined at necropsy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A single criterion was not determined to be pathognomonic for uremic encephalopathy in horses. Uremic encephalopathy should be considered as a differential diagnosis in horses with evidence of chronic renal failure and encephalopathic neurologic sign not attributable to other causes. Astrocyte swelling, which was common to all 4 horses examined at necropsy, may serve as a microscopic indicator of uremic encephalopathy in horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:560–566)
Objective—To compare concentrations of 3-methyleneindolenine (3MEIN) in lung tissues obtained from feedlot cattle that died as a result of acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) and cattle that died as a result of other causes and to compare blood concentrations of 3MEIN in healthy feedlot cattle and feedlot cattle with AIP.
Study Population—Blood samples and lung tissues collected from 186 cattle housed in 14 feedlots in the western United States.
Procedure—Samples of lung tissues were collected during routine postmortem examination and submitted for histologic, microbiologic, and toxicologic examination. Blood samples were collected from cattle with clinical manifestations of AIP and healthy penmates. Histologic diagnoses were categorized as AIP, bronchopneumonia (BP), control samples, and other disorders. Concentrations of 3MEIN were determined in lung tissues and blood samples, using an ELISA.
Results—Concentrations of 3MEIN in lung tissues were significantly greater in AIP and BP samples, compared with control samples. Absorbance per microgram of protein did not differ between BP and AIP samples. Blood concentrations of 3MEIN were significantly greater in cattle with AIP, compared with healthy cattle or cattle with BP. Odds of an animal with AIP being a heifer was 3.1 times greater than the odds of that animal being a steer.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Increased pulmonary production of 3MEIN may be an important etiologic factor in feedlot-associated AIP. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1525–1530)