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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Polioencephalomalacia (pem) was induced in calves by feeding a semipurified, low-roughage diet of variable copper and molybdenum composition. Two formulations resulting in Cu-insufficient and Cu-sufficient forms of the diet were fed (n = 10 and 4 calves, respectively); both diets induced pem. Clinical signs of disease developed as early as 15 days after transition to the experimental diets and included impaired vision, decreased response to external stimuli, and abnormal gait. Grossly evident cerebrocortical lesions consisted of laminar areas of cavitation and/or autofluorescence seen under uv illumination. Hepatic Cu concentration was decreased in calves fed the Cu-insufficient diet, but not below normal range. During the course of feeding either diet, rumen pH decreased, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations increased, rumen and blood lactic acid concentrations increased, and rumen and plasma thiamine concentrations increased. The thiamine pyrophosphate effect on erythrocyte transketolase activity was unaltered in calves of either diet group. This nutritionally induced form of pem does not appear to be related to Cu deficiency or reduction in plasma or rumen thiamine concentration.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Nine 115- to 180-kg, hay-adapted, Holstein steers were fed an experimental diet with added sodium sulfate that induces polioencephalomalacia (pem). Five calves developed the disease. Thiamine concentrations in blood, csf, brain, and liver were not indicative of thiamine deficiency. The odor of hydrogen sulfide in eructated rumen gas was associated with the onset of pem. Sulfide concentrations in rumen fluid were measured 1 or 2 times a week by 2 techniques. Sulfide concentrations progressively increased in all 9 calves after the feeding of the pem-inducing diet commenced. The highest concentrations coincided with the onset of clinical signs of pem and were significantly higher in the calves that developed pem than in those that did not. This suggests that pem can result from sulfide toxicosis following excess production of sulfide in the rumen.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objectives

To measure concentrations of thiamine in blood and sulfide in ruminal fluid in cattle with polioencephalomalacia (PEM) and to evaluate temporal associations between PEM and risk factors.

Design

Epidemiologic analysis.

Sample Population

14 steers with acute signs of PEM, 26 clinically normal steers, and records of all cattle in a feedlot for the past 6 years.

Procedures

Concentrations of thiamine in blood and sulfide in ruminal fluid were measured. Values were compared between healthy steers that had been in the feedlot for 3 weeks or 2 months. Records were used to estimate the incidence of PEM and the time when cattle were at greatest risk of developing PEM.

Results

Thiamine concentrations in steers with PEM were within reference ranges. Healthy steers had significantly greater sulfide concentrations 3 weeks after entering the feedlot, when the incidence of PEM was greatest, than 2 months after entering the feed-lot, when risk of developing PEM was low. Thiamine concentrations were within reference ranges at these times. Annually recurrent outbreaks of PEM during the summer began after initiating use of a water well containing a high content of sulfate.

Clinical Implications

Excessive ruminal sulfide production is an important factor in the pathogenesis of PEM, without concurrent thiamine deficiency. Most cases of PEM developed between 15 and 30 days after introduction to a high-sulfur diet. When water is an important source of dietary sulfur, risk of PEM may increase during hot weather. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1275–1279)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine historical, physical examination, clinicopathologic, and postmortem findings in horses with putative uremic encephalopathy.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—5 horses with renal failure and neurologic disease not attributable to abnormalities in any other organ system.

Procedure—Medical records from 1978 to 1998 were examined for horses with renal disease and neurologic signs not attributable to primary neurologic, hepatic, or other diseases. Signalment, history, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, renal ultrasonographic findings, and postmortem data were reviewed.

Results—Of 332 horses with renal disease, 5 met selection criteria. Historical findings, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, ultrasonographic data, and postmortem findings were consistent with chronic renal failure. Swollen astrocytes were detected in all 4 horses examined at necropsy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A single criterion was not determined to be pathognomonic for uremic encephalopathy in horses. Uremic encephalopathy should be considered as a differential diagnosis in horses with evidence of chronic renal failure and encephalopathic neurologic sign not attributable to other causes. Astrocyte swelling, which was common to all 4 horses examined at necropsy, may serve as a microscopic indicator of uremic encephalopathy in horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:560–566)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To analyze the sulfur content of water and forage samples from a geographically diverse sample of beef cow-calf operations in the United States and to estimate frequency and distribution of premises where forage and water resources could result in consumption of hazardous amounts of sulfur by cattle.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Sample Population—709 forage samples from 678 beef cow-calf operations and individual water samples from 498 operations in 23 states.

Procedure—Sulfur content of forage samples and sulfate concentration of water samples were measured. Total sulfur intake was estimated for pairs of forage and water samples.

Results—Total sulfur intake was estimated for 454 pairs of forage and water samples. In general, highest forage sulfur contents did not coincide with highest water sulfate concentrations. Overall, 52 of the 454 (11.5%) sample pairs were estimated to yield total sulfur intake (as a percentage of dry matter) ≥ 0.4%, assuming water intake during conditions of high ambient temperature. Most of these premises were in north-central (n = 19) or western (19) states.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that on numerous beef cow-calf operations throughout the United States, consumption of forage and water could result in excessively high sulfur intake. All water sources and dietary components should be evaluated when assessing total sulfur intake. Knowledge of total sulfur intake may be useful in reducing the risk of sulfur-associated health and performance problems in beef cattle. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:673–677)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate viral and bacterial respiratory pathogens and Mycoplasma spp isolated from lung tissues of cattle with acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) and cattle that had died as a result of other causes.

Sample Population—186 samples of lung tissues collected from cattle housed in 14 feedlots in the western United States.

Procedure—Lung tissues were collected during routine postmortem examination and submitted for histologic, microbiologic, and toxicologic examinations. Histologic diagnoses were categorized for AIP, bronchopneumonia (BP), control samples (no evidence of disease), and other disorders.

Results—Cattle affected with AIP had been in feedlots for a mean of 127.2 days before death, which was longer than cattle with BP and control cattle. Detection of a viral respiratory pathogen (eg, bovine respiratory syncytial virus [BRSV], bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, or parainfluenza virus 3) was not associated with histologic category of lung tissues. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus was detected in 8.3% of AIP samples and 24.0% of control samples. Histologic category was associated with isolation of an aerobic bacterial agent and Mycoplasma spp. Cattle with BP were at greatest risk for isolation of an aerobic bacterial agent and Mycoplasma spp.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of these results suggests that AIP in feedlot cattle is not a consequence of infection with BRSV. The increased risk of isolation of an aerobic bacterial agent from cattle with AIP, compared with control cattle, may indicate a causal role or an opportunistic infection that follows development of AIP. (Am J Vet Res 2001; 62:1519–1524)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare concentrations of 3-methyleneindolenine (3MEIN) in lung tissues obtained from feedlot cattle that died as a result of acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) and cattle that died as a result of other causes and to compare blood concentrations of 3MEIN in healthy feedlot cattle and feedlot cattle with AIP.

Study Population—Blood samples and lung tissues collected from 186 cattle housed in 14 feedlots in the western United States.

Procedure—Samples of lung tissues were collected during routine postmortem examination and submitted for histologic, microbiologic, and toxicologic examination. Blood samples were collected from cattle with clinical manifestations of AIP and healthy penmates. Histologic diagnoses were categorized as AIP, bronchopneumonia (BP), control samples, and other disorders. Concentrations of 3MEIN were determined in lung tissues and blood samples, using an ELISA.

Results—Concentrations of 3MEIN in lung tissues were significantly greater in AIP and BP samples, compared with control samples. Absorbance per microgram of protein did not differ between BP and AIP samples. Blood concentrations of 3MEIN were significantly greater in cattle with AIP, compared with healthy cattle or cattle with BP. Odds of an animal with AIP being a heifer was 3.1 times greater than the odds of that animal being a steer.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Increased pulmonary production of 3MEIN may be an important etiologic factor in feedlot-associated AIP. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1525–1530)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research