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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To establish reference values for a panel of serum markers of bone turnover in dogs of various ages.


Dogs in 4 age groups (0 to 1 year; 1 to 2 years; 3 to 7 years; > 8 years).


Serum concentrations of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type-I procollagen (PICP) and the aminoterminal propeptide of type-I procollagen (PINP), both markers of type-I collagen synthesis (hence, bone formation), were measured by use of commercial human radioimmunoassay kits. Serum concentrations of the carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type-I collagen (ICTP), a marker for type-I collagen breakdown (hence, bone resorption), also were measured by use of a commercial human radioimmunoassay kit. Serum osteocalcin (OC) concentrations and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) isoenzyme activities were measured by use of techniques developed specifically for dogs.


As expected, the highest values for all of the markers were found in young dogs (< 12 months old). Concentrations of OC and ICTP decreased with age, and were lowest in dogs > 8 years old. Total ALP and bone-specific ALP activities initially decreased with age, then increased in dogs > 8 years old.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Serum markers of bone turnover may be useful diagnostic and prognostic tools for management of dogs with musculoskeletal disorders. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:250–254)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine causes of hyperphosphatasemia (high serum alkaline phosphatase [ALP] activity) in apparently healthy Scottish Terriers.

Design—Prospective case-controlled study.

Animals—34 apparently healthy adult Scottish Terriers (17 with and 17 without hyperphosphatasemia).

Procedures—Serum activities for 3 isoforms (bone, liver, and corticosteroid) of ALP were measured. Concentrations of cortisol, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and aldosterone were measured before and after cosyntropin administration (ie, ACTH; 5 μg/kg [2.27 μg/lb], IM). Liver biopsy specimens from 16 dogs (11 with and 5 without hyperphosphatasemia) were evaluated histologically.

Results—In dogs with hyperphosphatasemia, the corticosteroid ALP isoform comprised a significantly higher percentage of total ALP activity, compared with the percentage in dogs without hyperphosphatasemia (mean ± SE, 69 ± 5.0% and 17 ± 3.8%, respectively). In 6 dogs with hyperphosphatasemia, but none without, serum cortisol concentrations exceeded reference intervals after ACTH stimulation. Six dogs with and 15 without hyperphosphatasemia had increased concentrations of ≥ 1 noncortisol steroid hormone after ACTH stimulation. Serum ALP activity was correlated with cortisol and androstenedione concentrations (r = 0.337 and 0.496, respectively) measured after ACTH stimulation. All dogs with and most without hyperphosphatasemia had abnormal hepatocellular reticulation typical of vacuolar hepatopathy. Subjectively, hepatocellular reticulation was more severe and widespread in hyperphosphatasemic dogs, compared with that in nonhyperphosphatasemic dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hyperphosphatasemia in apparently healthy Scottish Terriers was most likely attributable to hyperadrenocorticism on the basis of exaggerated serum biochemical responses to ACTH administration and histologic hepatic changes, but none of the dogs had clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association