3 juvenile (4 to 5 months of age) medium- to large-breed or crossbred dogs were evaluated for sudden unilateral non–weight-bearing lameness in a pelvic limb after a fall during strenuous activity.
All dogs had non–weight-bearing lameness (n = 2) or bore minimal weight (1) on the affected pelvic limb, had soft tissue swelling over the cranial aspect of the stifle joint in the affected limb, seemed to resist manipulation of the affected joint, and had tibial tuberosity avulsion fracture confirmed with radiography.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Each dog underwent surgical fracture reduction and stabilization with a hybrid circular-linear external skeletal fixator construct with interfragmentary Kirschner wires used to stabilize the avulsed tibial tuberosity. Successful fracture reduction and stabilization were achieved, and only minor postoperative complications occurred. Construct removal 2 weeks postoperatively resulted in no displacement of the tibial tuberosity in 2 dogs and only minor proximal displacement in the remaining dog, allowed for continued unencumbered growth through the apophysis and proximal tibial epiphysis in all dogs, and did not result in tibial conformational anomalies. Clinical outcome was considered excellent in 2 dogs with complete resolution of lameness and good in 1 dog with subsequent occasional mild lameness.
Our findings suggested that the described hybrid external skeletal fixator construct could be used as a minimally invasive strategy to successfully manage tibial tuberosity avulsion fractures in dogs and may be advantageous in very young medium- to large-breed dogs in which premature closure of the tibial tuberosity apophysis could result in distal translocation of the tibial tuberosity and deformity of the tibial plateau.
Objective—To evaluate mediolateral, axial, torsional,
and craniocaudal bending behavior of 6 distal ring-block
configurations commonly used to stabilize short
juxta-articular bone segments in small animals.
Sample Population—8 circular external skeletal fixator
constructs of each of 6 distal ring-block configurations.
The distal ring-block configurations were composed
of combinations of complete rings, incomplete
rings, and drop wires.
Procedure—Constructs were nondestructively
loaded in axial compression, craniocaudal bending,
mediolateral bending, and torsional loading by use of
a materials testing machine. Gap stiffness was determined
by use of the resultant load displacement
Results—Circular external skeletal fixator configurations
and constructs significantly affected gap stiffness
in all testing modes. Within each loading mode,
gap stiffness was significantly different among most
configurations. In general, complete ring configurations
were significantly stiffer than similar incomplete
ring configurations, and addition of a drop wire to a
configuration significantly increased stiffness of that
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—When regional
anatomic structures permit, the use of complete
ring configurations is preferred over incomplete ring
configurations. When incomplete ring configurations
are used, the addition of a drop wire is recommended.
(Am J Vet Res 2004;65:393–398)
Objective—To compare in vitro axial compression, abaxial compression, and torsional stiffnesses of intact and plated radii from small- and large-breed dogs.
Sample—Radii from 18 small-breed and 9 large-breed skeletally mature dogs.
Procedures—3 groups were tested: large-breed dog radii plated with 3.5-mm limited-contact dynamic compression plates (LCDCPs), small-breed dog radii plated with 2.0-mm dynamic compression plates (DCPs), and small-breed dog radii plated with 2.0/2.7-mm cut-to-length plates (CTLPs). The axial compression, abaxial compression, and torsional stiffnesses of each intact radius were determined under loading with a material testing machine. An osteotomy was performed, radii were plated, and testing was repeated. The stiffness values of the plated radii were expressed as absolute and normalized values; the latter was calculated as a percentage of the stiffness of the intact bone. Absolute and normalized stiffness values were compared among groups.
Results—The absolute stiffnesses of plated radii in axial and abaxial compression were 52% to 83% of the intact stiffnesses in all fixation groups. No difference was found in torsion. There was no difference in normalized stiffnesses between small-breed radii stabilized with CTLPs and large-breed radii stabilized with LCDCPs; however, small-breed radii stabilized with DCPs were less stiff than were any other group.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Plated radii of small-breed dogs had normalized stiffnesses equal to or less than plated radii of large-breed dogs. The complications typically associated with plating of radial fractures in small-breed dogs cannot be ascribed to an overly stiff bone-plate construct.
To evaluate the ease and accuracy of using a 3-D printed (3-DP) drill guide to insert Kirschner wires through the ilium and into the sacral body in preparation for minimally invasive iliosacral screw placement in dog cadavers.
10 dog cadavers weighing 20 to 30 kg (mean ± SD, 24.5 ± 5 kg).
Kirschner wires were placed using a limited approach to the lateral ilium. Fluoroscopy was used in freehand and 3-DP drill guide application groups to facilitate the placement of a 1.0-mm Kirschner wire that was over-drilled using a 2.5-mm cannulated drill bit. Kirschner wires were placed using a 3-DP drill guide on 1 hemipelvis and freehand wire placement was done on the contralateral hemipelvis. Postprocedural CTs were obtained, and 2-D and 3-D analyses were performed. The Student t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to compare groups. A Pearson correlation coefficient was performed to evaluate the in-group correlation.
Likert scores that assessed the ease of the procedure were significantly greater (P = .04) and the incision length was significantly shorter (P = .016) in the 3-DP drill guide group compared with the freehand group. The time of the procedure, the number of attempts to obtain accurate Kirschner wire placement, and fluoroscopy images did not differ (P > .05) between application groups. Drill tracks were primarily confined to the sacral body, with minor projected screw thread cortical breeches occurred in 1 cadaver in the freehand group and 2 cadavers in the 3-DP drill guide group.
The 3-DP drill guide simplified appropriate iliosacral Kirschner wire placement through a smaller incision compared with freehand drilling and would appear to be an efficient, practical instrument to facilitate accurate fluoroscopic-assisted screw placement when stabilizing sacroiliac luxations in dogs.
Objective—To identify risk factors for successful surgical
management of dogs with atlantoaxial subluxation
Animals—46 dogs managed surgically for AAS.
Procedure—Age at onset of clinical abnormalities,
duration of clinical abnormalities prior to surgery,
radiographic appearance of the dens, type (dorsal or
ventral procedure) and number (1 or 2) of surgeries
performed, grade of postoperative atlantoaxial joint
reduction, and neurologic status prior to surgery (preoperative),
when dogs were discharged from the hospital
(postoperative), and during a follow-up evaluation
(final) were obtained from the dogs' medical records.
Risk factors for surgical success and degree of neurologic
improvement were identified and analyzed for
Results—Age at onset of clinical abnormalities ≤ 24
months was significantly associated with greater
odds of a successful first surgery and final outcome
and a lower postoperative neurologic grade. Duration
of clinical abnormalities ≤ 10 months was significantly
associated with greater odds of a successful final
outcome and a lower final neurologic grade. A preoperative
neurologic grade of 1 or 2 was significantly
associated with a lower final neurologic grade.
Potential risk factors that did not affect odds of a successful
outcome included type of surgery performed,
grade of atlantoaxial joint reduction, radiographic
appearance of the dens, or need for a second surgery.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Age at onset
of clinical abnormalities, duration of clinical abnormalities
prior to surgery, and preoperative neurologic status
are risk factors for success of surgical management
of AAS in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;
Case Description—A 10-year-old spayed female Jack Russell Terrier and a 7-year-old neutered male mixed-breed dog were evaluated because of acute, progressive, unilateral forelimb lameness associated with signs of pain and turgid antebrachial swelling.
Clinical Findings—For either dog, there were no salient pathological or diagnostic imaging abnormalities. A diagnosis of compartment syndrome was confirmed on the basis of high caudal antebrachial compartmental pressure in the affected forelimb.
Treatment and Outcome—Both dogs underwent surgical exploration of the affected forelimb. In each case, an intramuscular tumor (mast cell tumor in the Jack Russell Terrier and suspected sarcoma in the mixed-breed dog) was detected and presumed to be the cause of the high compartmental pressure. At 6 months following tumor excision, the dog with the mast cell tumor did not have any clinical signs of disease. The dog with a suspected sarcoma underwent tumor excision and forelimb amputation at the proximal portion of the humerus followed by chemotherapy; the dog was euthanized approximately 1 year following treatment because of pulmonary metastasis.
Clinical Relevance—Compartment syndrome is a serious but rarely reported condition in dogs and is typically ascribed to intracompartmental hemorrhage. These 2 cases illustrate the potential for expansile intramuscular antebrachial tumors to cause compartment syndrome in dogs.
Objective—To determine the influence of stifle joint flexion angle, cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) integrity, tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO), and cranial tibial subluxation on the distance between the location of the origin and insertion of the CrCL (CrCLd) in dogs.
Samples—4 pairs of pelvic limbs from adult dog cadavers weighing 23 to 34 kg.
Procedures—Mediolateral projection radiographs of each stifle joint were obtained with the joint flexed at 90°, 105°, 120°, 135°, and 150°. Radiopaque markers were then placed at the sites of origin and insertion of the CrCL. Afterward, radiography was repeated in the same manner, before and after CrCL transection, with and without TPLO. Following CrCL transection, radiographs were obtained before and after inducing overt cranial tibial subluxation. Interobserver variation in measuring the CrCLd without fiduciary markers was assessed. The effect of CrCL integrity, cranial tibial subluxation, flexion angle, and TPLO on CrCLd was also determined.
Results—Interobserver agreement was strong, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.859. The CrCLd was significantly shorter (< 1 mm) at 90° of flexion; otherwise, flexion angle had no effect on CrCLd. Cranial tibial subluxation caused a 25% to 40% increase in CrCLd. No effect of TPLO on CrCLd was found, regardless of CrCL integrity, forced stifle joint subluxation, or flexion angle.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Overt cranial tibial subluxation in CrCL-deficient stifle joints can be detected on mediolateral projection radiographs by comparing CrCLd on neutral and stressed joint radiographs at joint angles between 105° and 150°, regardless of whether a TPLO has been performed.