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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether topical application of 1% diclofenac sodium cream would decrease inflammation at sites of IV regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) in healthy horses.

Animals—6 healthy adult horses (12 forelimbs).

Procedures—Bilateral IVRLP with 2.5 g of amikacin sulfate was performed twice in each horse, with 24 hours between each session. Horses were treated with topical 1% diclofenac liposomal cream (treated limbs) or a placebo cream (control limbs). All injection sites were evaluated before the first IVRLP session and 24 hours after the second session by means of ultrasonographic examination by a trained ultrasonographer who was unaware of the treatment received. Circumferential measurements and subjective visible inflammation scores were recorded by a veterinarian who was also unaware of treatment received.

Results—After IVRLP, control limbs had a significantly greater increase in subcutaneous thickness, compared with treated limbs. Ultrasonographic and visual assessment scores were significantly higher in control versus treated limbs. The mean change in limb circumference was greater, but not significantly so, in control limbs, compared with treated limbs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Topical application of 1% diclofenac sodium liposomal cream to sites of IVRLP in healthy horses decreased inflammation as judged by visual assessment and ultrasonography. Decreased inflammation may allow extended use of IVRLP and may result in a reduction in pain in treated horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The first objective was to determine if the sample collection method (naturally voided vs digital rectal examination collection) affected fecal occult blood test (FOBT) results. The second objective was to assess the ability of human fecal hemoglobin immunochemical tests to detect canine and feline blood.

ANIMALS

308 privately owned dogs, healthy and sick.

METHODS

Guaiac FOBTs were performed on paired voided and rectally obtained canine fecal samples. The kappa statistic was used to assess agreement between the 2 collection methods, and a multivariate regression model was used to identify factors associated with a positive FOBT. Two fecal immunochemical tests (FITs; Hemosure One Step and OC-Light S) were tested with serially diluted human, canine, and feline blood.

RESULTS

Voided and rectally obtained samples showed strong FOB-positivity agreement (k = 0.80), with 92.5% concordance and only 13/308 dogs negative on void but positive on rectal. Multivariate analysis showed dogs with gastrointestinal disease (P = .0008, rectal; P = .0001, void) were more likely and heavier dogs (P = .0037, rectal; P = .0022 void) were less likely to test FOBT positive. Health status, fasting status, NSAID use, and age were associated with FOBT results on univariate, but not multivariate, analysis. FITs did not detect canine or feline blood at any concentration while human blood performed as expected.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Rectally obtained fecal samples can be reliably used for FOBTs. Human FITs may not be suitable for companion animals, but evaluation of other available tests is needed.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine if dogs with neoplasia produce more coated platelets, a subpopulation of activated platelets generated by dual stimulation with thrombin and convulxin, a glycoprotein VI agonist, than healthy control dogs.

ANIMALS

Client-owned dogs diagnosed with lymphoma (n = 19) or solid tumors (14) and healthy control dogs (14).

PROCEDURES

Platelets were stimulated ex vivo with thrombin and convulxin. Flow cytometry was used to quantify the percentage of coated platelets based on high levels of surface fibrinogen. To compare the percentage of coated platelets between the three groups, an ANOVA was performed followed by pairwise 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for multiple comparisons using Tukey’s method.

RESULTS

We observed a greater mean percentage of coated platelets in dogs with solid tumors, compared with healthy control dogs, by 10.9 percentage points (95% CI: −1.0, 22.8), and a mean percentage of coated platelets in dogs with lymphoma that was less than healthy control dogs by 0.3 percentage points (95% CI: −11.4, 10.8).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study provides the first data-based evidence that dogs with solid tumors may have a greater mean coated platelet percentage when compared with healthy control dogs, although there is overlap between groups. Further studies are needed investigating coated platelets in specific subsets of neoplasia and investigating additional mechanisms of hypercoagulability in dogs with neoplasia.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research