Objective—To characterize a population of dogs from a tertiary care center with 2 or more endocrine disorders, including the specific disorders and time intervals between diagnosis of each disorder.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—35 dogs with 2 or more endocrine disorders.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed, and the following was recorded: clinical signs, physical examination findings, and the results of CBC, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, aerobic bacterial culture of urine samples, endocrine testing, diagnostic imaging, and necropsy.
Results—35 dogs with more than 1 endocrine disorder were identified. Seventy-seven percent (27/35) of the dogs were male, and the mean age at the time of diagnosis of the first endocrinopathy was 7.9 years. Miniature Schnauzer was the most common breed. Twenty-eight of 35 (80%) dogs had 2 disorders; 7 (20%) had 3 disorders. The most common combinations of disorders included diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism in 57.1 % (20/35) of dogs; hypoadrenocorticism and hypothyroidism in 22.9% (8/35) of dogs; and diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism in 28.6% (10/35) of dogs. A mean of 14.5 months elapsed between diagnosis of the first and second endocrine disorders, whereas there was a mean of 31.1 months between diagnosis of the first and third endocrine disorders.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the occurrence of multiple endocrine disorders was uncommon in dogs. The most common combinations of endocrine disorders in this population of dogs were diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism, followed by hypoadrenocorticism and hypothyroidism.
Objective—To identify the normal gastric acid secretion
profile in dogs and determine the degree of gastric
acid suppression associated with 4 gastric acid
Animals—12 healthy Beagles.
Procedure—Intragastric pH was measured continuously
for 24-hour periods with a digital recording system
placed via a gastrostomy tube. Baseline measurements
were obtained when food was withheld
and when dogs were fed a standard diet. Dogs were
then treated with ranitidine (2 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h),
famotidine (0.5 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h), pantoprazole
(1 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h), omeprazole (1 mg/kg, PO, q 24
h), or saline solution for 7 days; intragastric pH was
recorded on days 0, 2, and 6. Subsequently, the
effects of administering famotidine (0.5 mg/kg, IV, q 8
h; 6 dogs) and omeprazole as a suspension (1 mg/kg,
PO, q 12 h; 6 dogs) were evaluated. Median 24-hour
intragastric pH, percentage of time pH was ≥ 3, and
percentage of time pH was ≥ 4 were determined.
Results—Median pH, percentage of time pH was ≥ 3,
and percentage of time pH was ≥ 4 were all significantly
higher when food was withheld than when
dogs were fed. Famotidine, pantoprazole, and
omeprazole significantly suppressed gastric acid
secretion, compared with saline solution, as determined
on the basis of median 24-hour pH and percentages
of time pH was ≥ 3 or ≥ 4. However, ranitidine
did not. Omeprazole suspension suppressed
gastric acid secretion.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that in healthy dogs, famotidine, pantoprazole,
and omeprazole significantly suppress gastric acid
secretion. Twice daily administration of a suspension
of omeprazole, was the only regimen tested that
approached the potential therapeutic efficacy for acidrelated
disease when assessed by criteria used for
human patients. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:425–431)
Objective—To determine effects of therapeutic dosages of aspirin, carprofen, deracoxib, and meloxicam on platelet function and systemic prostaglandin concentrations in healthy dogs.
Animals—10 hound-crossbred dogs.
Procedures—Aspirin (10 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h), carprofen (4.4 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), deracoxib (2 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), meloxicam (0.1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), and a placebo were administered for 7 days in a random order to each of 10 healthy dogs; there was a 21-day washout period between subsequent treatments. One-stage prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen concentration, and plasma concentrations of thromboxane (TX)B2 and 6-keto prostaglandin (PG)F1α were measured before and after treatment administration. Platelet function was assessed by use of a platelet-function analyzer and aggregation.
Results—Aspirin, carprofen, and meloxicam did not significantly affect platelet function. Deracoxib caused a mild decrease in platelet aggregation induced by 50μM ADP. Platelet number, Hct, PT, aPTT, and plasma TXB2 and 6-keto PGF1α concentrations were unchanged after NSAID administration. Meloxicam administration resulted in a significant decrease in fibrinogen concentration, but results remained within the laboratory reference interval.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Oral administration of commonly used NSAIDs at therapeutic dosages in healthy dogs did not alter plasma TXB2 and 6-keto PGF1α concentrations. Deracoxib administration resulted in a minor abnormality in platelet aggregation. Anti-inflammatory doses of aspirin did not affect platelet function as measured by use of optical aggregometry and a platelet-function analyzer. Further evaluation of the effects of aspirin and cyclooxygenase-2–selective inhibitors on hemostasis should be performed.
Objective—To determine the effects of enteral administration of doxycycline, amoxicillin, cephalexin, and enrofloxacin at therapeutic dosages for a typical duration on hemostatic variables in healthy dogs.
Procedure—Doxycycline (10 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h), amoxicillin (30 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h), cephalexin (30 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h), and enrofloxacin (20 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) were administered in random order to 10 healthy dogs at standard therapeutic dosages for 7 days, with a 7-day washout period between subsequent antimicrobials. In addition, 4 Beagles served as control dogs. Variables were evaluated before and after antimicrobial administration; they included platelet count, Hct, 1-stage prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (PTT), fibrinogen concentration, and platelet function. Platelet function was assessed via buccal mucosal bleeding time, aggregation, and a platelet-function analyzer.
Results—Administration of all antimicrobials caused a slight prolongation of 1-stage PT and activated PTT and slight decrease in fibrinogen concentration. Cephalexin caused a significant increase in 1-stage PT and activated PTT, amoxicillin caused a significant increase in activated PTT, and enrofloxacin caused a significant decrease in fibrinogen concentration. Platelet count or function did not differ significantly after administration of any antimicrobial.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Oral administration of commonly used antimicrobials in healthy dogs resulted in minor secondary hemostatic abnormalities, with no change in platelet count or function. Although these changes were clinically irrelevant in healthy dogs, additional studies of the effects of antimicrobial administration on hemostasis in animals with underlying disease processes are warranted.
OBJECTIVE To quantify plasma concentrations and determine adverse ocular, renal, or hepatic effects associated with repeated topical ophthalmic application of 0.1% diclofenac to healthy cats.
ANIMALS 8 healthy sexually intact male cats.
PROCEDURES A randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted. A topical formulation of 0.1% diclofenac was administered 4 times/d for 7 days to 4 cats, and artificial tear (control) solution was administered to the other 4 cats. After a 12-day washout period, cats received the other treatment. Ophthalmic examinations were performed daily. Plasma samples were obtained on days 1 and 7 for pharmacokinetic analysis. A CBC, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, determination of urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, and determination of glomerular filtration rate were performed before the start of the study and after each 7-day treatment period.
RESULTS Mild conjunctival hyperemia was the only adverse ocular effect detected. Maximal drug concentration and area under the curve were significantly higher on day 7 than on day 1. Diclofenac-treated cats had a significantly lower glomerular filtration rate than did control-treated cats after the second but not after the first treatment period, presumably associated with iatrogenic hypovolemia.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Topical ophthalmic administration of 0.1% diclofenac was well tolerated in healthy cats, with only mild signs of ocular irritation. Detectable systemic concentrations of diclofenac were achieved with accumulation over 7 days. Systemic absorption of diclofenac may be associated with reduced glomerular filtration rate, particularly in volume-contracted animals. Topical ophthalmic 0.1% diclofenac should be used with caution in volume-contracted or systemically ill cats.
Objective—To compare electroencephalography (EEG) artifact associated with use of the subdermal wire electrode (SWE), gold cup electrode (GCE), and subdermal needle electrode (SNE) over an 8-hour period in sedated and awake dogs.
Animals—6 healthy dogs.
Procedures—8 EEG channels were recorded during 20-minute video-EEG recording sessions (intermittently at 0.5, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours) with and without chlorpromazine sedation. Nonphysiologic artifacts were identified. Duration of artifact was summed for each channel. Number of unaffected channels (NUC) was determined.
Results—NUC was significantly affected by electrode type and sedation over time; median for SWE (2.80 channels; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 5.70 channels) was significantly different from medians for GCE (7.87 channels; 95% CI, 7.44 to 7.94 channels) and SNE (7.60 channels; 95% CI, 6.61 to 7.89 channels). After 4 hours, NUC decreased in awake dogs, regardless of electrode type. In awake dogs, duration of artifact differed significantly between SWE and GCE or SNE; medians at 8 hours were 61.55 seconds (95% CI, 21.81 to 173.65 seconds), 1.33 seconds (95% CI, 0.47 to 3.75 seconds), and 21.01 seconds (95% CI, 6.85 to 64.42 seconds), respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The SWE had a significant duration of artifact during recording periods > 2 hours, compared with results for the GCE and SNE, in awake dogs. The GCE, SNE, and sedation resulted in significantly more channels unaffected by artifact. For longer recordings, caution should be exercised in selecting EEG electrodes and sedation state, although differences among electrodes may not be clinically relevant.