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Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of breed and oral vitamin E supplementation during late gestation on serum vitamin E and IgG concentrations in beef cows that calved in late winter and late summer and in neonatal calves.

Animals—73 Angus and 43 Hereford primiparous and multiparous cows and their calves.

Procedure—Cows in groups that were homogeneous regarding breed and age distribution were randomly allotted to groups that were orally supplemented (n = 59) or not supplemented (57) with vitamin E beginning 30 days prior to onset of 65-day calving seasons. Supplemental vitamin E was provided in a vitamin-mineral mix offered free-choice until parturition.

Procedure—Cows that calved in late winter and were supplemented orally with vitamin E had higher serum vitamin E concentrations at calving and after calving than did unsupplemented cows; differences between groups before calving were not significant. Calves from supplemented multiparous cows had higher vitamin E concentrations than did calves from unsupplemented cows. Winter-born calves from supplemented Hereford cows had heavier 205-day adjusted weaning weights than did winter-born calves from unsupplemented Hereford cows. Supplementation did not affect vitamin E or IgG concentrations in the herd that calved in late summer and did not affect calf growth.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Oral vitamin E supplementation during late gestation may be economically beneficial in certain cow-calf operations in which late-gestation cows are consuming stored forages. ( Am J Vet Res 2001;62:921–927)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Effects of selenium (Se) deficiency and supplementation on production of colostral immunoglobulins by beef cows and transfer of antigen-specific and nonspecific immunoglobulins to their calves were examined. Eighty beef cows, with marginal to deficient Se status (blood Se concentration, 50 μg/L), were allotted by breed and age to 1 of 4 Se treatment groups (n = 20/group): no supplemental Se; parenteral administration of 0.1 mg of Se and 1 mg of vitamin E/kg of body weight; ad libitum consumption of 120 mg of Se/kg of salt-mineral mix (smm); and parenteral administration of 0.1 mg of Se and 1 mg of vitamin E/kg plus ad libitum consumption of 120 mg of Se/kg of smm. All cows were inoculated IM with lysozyme. Cows consumed Se-deficient pastures or hay (21 to 62 μg/kg) during the study that began at mid-gestation and ended at postpartum hour 24. Although the concentration of specific lysozyme antibodies was not affected, cows given 120 mg of Se/kg of smm (treatments 3 and 4) had higher colostral IgG concentration (P < 0.002) than did Se-deficient cows (treatments 1 and 2). Calves from cows in treatments 3 and 4 had higher postsuckle serum concentrations of IgG (P < 0.01) than did calves from cows in treatments 1 and 2. Colostral IgM and calf serum IgM concentrations did not differ among treatments.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Eighty gestating beef cattle were used to determine the effect of trace mineral salt mixtures containing copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) on selected immune functions and factors affecting copper bioavailability. Pastured cattle were randomly assigned to receive one of the following combinations of Cu and Fe in the free-choice trace mineral salt: (1) 0 mg of Cu/0 mg of Fe/kg of trace mineral salt, (2) 1,600 mg of Cu (CuSO4)/3,000 mg of Fe/kg of trace mineral salt, (3) 1,600 mg of Cu (CuSO4)/0 mg of Fe/kg of trace mineral salt, and (4) 1,600 mg of Cu (CuCO3)/3,000 mg of Fe/kg of trace mineral salt. Total Cu/Fe consumption (from trace mineral salt) was 2/678, 193/1,050, 162/553, and 202/1,140 mg/head/d, respectively, for the 4 groups. After a 1-month period of acclimation and also on day 28 of the 36-day study, copper concentrations in serum were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in group 1 than in groups 3 and 4. Serum copper concentrations did not increase with time for any group, whereas hepatic copper concentrations increased significantly (P < 0.05) with time for all groups except group 1. Hepatic iron concentrations were similar among groups at the time of the initial and final hepatic biopsies on days 0 and 28, respectively. Hepatic iron concentrations increased significantly (P < 0.05) with time in groups 3 and 4.

Humoral response to chicken γ-globulin was high but did not differ among groups on any of the days analyzed. Neutrophil function tests, consisting of hydrogen peroxide production, phagocytosis of latex particles, calcium uptake, and superoxide production, were different only for phagocytosis among groups; the percentage of neutrophils phagocytizing latex beads was significantly (P < 0.05) lower for group 2 than the other groups. A similar reduction in phagocytosis was prevented by the omission of additional Fe from the trace mineral salt (groups 1 and 3) or use of CuCO3 (group 4).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association