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  • Author or Editor: Dale E. Bjorling x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare hydromorphone with oxymorphone, with or without acepromazine, for preanesthetic sedation in dogs and assess changes in plasma concentration of histamine after drug administration.

Design—Randomized clinical study.

Animals—10 healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were treated IM with hydromorphone (group H), oxymorphone (group O), hydromorphone with acepromazine (group H/A), or oxymorphone with acepromazine (group O/A). Sedation score, heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were recorded at baseline immediately after drug administration (T0) and every 5 minutes for 25 minutes (T25). Plasma histamine concentration was measured at baseline and T25.

Results—Sedation was similar between groups H and O at all times. Sedation was significantly greater for groups H/A and O/A from T10 to T25, compared with other groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced at T25 in group H/A, compared with group H, and in group O/A, compared with group O. Prevalence of panting at T25 was 50% for groups H and O, compared with 20% for group H/A and 30% for group O/A. By T25, heart rate was significantly lower in all groups. Oxygen saturation was unaffected by treatment. Mean ± SD plasma histamine concentration was 1.72 ± 2.69 ng/ml at baseline and 1.13 ± 1.18 ng/ml at T25. There was no significant change in plasma histamine concentration in any group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hydromorphone is comparable to oxymorphone for preanesthetic sedation in dogs. Sedation is enhanced by acepromazine. Neither hydromorphone nor oxymorphone caused an increase in plasma histamine concentration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1101–1105)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare postoperative discomfort assessed by subjective pain score and plasma cortisol concentrations in cats undergoing onychectomy that received analgesia by use of transdermal fentanyl (TDF) patches or an IM injection of butorphanol.

Design—Randomized prospective clinical trial.

Animals—22 client-owned cats weighing 2.2 to 5 kg (4.84 to 11 lb) undergoing onychectomy.

Procedure—Researchers were blinded to which cats received a TDF patch (25 µg/h) 18 to 24 hours prior to surgery or an IM injection of butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb]) at the time of sedation, immediately following extubation, and at 4-hour intervals thereafter for 12 hours. Clinical variables, plasma cortisol concentration, and pain scores were evaluated and recorded 24 hours prior to surgery, at extubation, and 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after surgery.

Results—The TDF group had a lower pain score than the butorphanol group only at 8 hours after surgery. Both groups had significantly lower mean plasma cortisol concentrations 0, 24, 36, and 48 hours after surgery, compared with mean plasma cortisol concentrations prior to surgery. No significant differences in appetite or response to handling the feet were observed between the 2 groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our data did not reveal a difference in pain relief between administration of TDF and butorphanol. Plasma cortisol concentrations were not different between groups. Fentanyl appeared to provide equivalent analgesia to butorphanol in cats undergoing onychectomy. The primary advantage of using a TDF patch is that repeated injections are not required. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1020–1024)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare long-term results of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy followed by exenteration of the nasal cavity in dogs with malignant intranasal neoplasia.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—53 dogs with malignant intranasal neoplasia.

Procedure—All dogs underwent radiotherapy consisting of administration of 10 fractions of 4.2 Gy each on consecutive weekdays. For dogs in the surgery group (n = 13), follow-up computed tomography was performed, and dogs were scheduled for surgery if persistent or recurrent tumor was seen.

Results—Perioperative complications for dogs that underwent surgery included hemorrhage requiring transfusion (2 dogs) and subcutaneous emphysema (8). Rhinitis and osteomyelitis-osteonecrosis occurred significantly more frequently in dogs in the radiotherapy and surgery group (9 and 4 dogs, respectively) than in dogs in the radiotherapy-only group (4 and 3 dogs, respectively). Two- and 3-year survival rates were 44% and 24%, respectively, for dogs in the radiotherapy group and 69% and 58%, respectively, for dogs in the surgery group. Overall median survival time for dogs in the radiotherapy and surgery group (47.7 months) was significantly longer than time for dogs in the radiotherapy-only group (19.7 months).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that exenteration of the nasal cavity significantly prolongs survival time in dogs with intranasal neoplasia that have undergone radiotherapy. Exenteration after radiotherapy may increase the risk of chronic complications. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:936–941)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association