Objective—To compare hydromorphone with oxymorphone,
with or without acepromazine, for preanesthetic
sedation in dogs and assess changes in
plasma concentration of histamine after drug administration.
Design—Randomized clinical study.
Animals—10 healthy mixed-breed dogs.
Procedure—Dogs were treated IM with hydromorphone
(group H), oxymorphone (group O), hydromorphone
with acepromazine (group H/A), or oxymorphone
with acepromazine (group O/A). Sedation score, heart
rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, and oxygen
saturation were recorded at baseline immediately
after drug administration (T0) and every 5 minutes for 25
minutes (T25). Plasma histamine concentration was
measured at baseline and T25.
Results—Sedation was similar between groups H
and O at all times. Sedation was significantly greater
for groups H/A and O/A from T10 to T25, compared
with other groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly
reduced at T25 in group H/A, compared with
group H, and in group O/A, compared with group O.
Prevalence of panting at T25 was 50% for groups H
and O, compared with 20% for group H/A and 30%
for group O/A. By T25, heart rate was significantly
lower in all groups. Oxygen saturation was unaffected
by treatment. Mean ± SD plasma histamine concentration
was 1.72 ± 2.69 ng/ml at baseline and 1.13 ±
1.18 ng/ml at T25. There was no significant change in
plasma histamine concentration in any group.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hydromorphone
is comparable to oxymorphone for preanesthetic
sedation in dogs. Sedation is enhanced by acepromazine.
Neither hydromorphone nor oxymorphone
caused an increase in plasma histamine concentration.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1101–1105)
Objective—To compare postoperative discomfort
assessed by subjective pain score and plasma cortisol
concentrations in cats undergoing onychectomy that
received analgesia by use of transdermal fentanyl
(TDF) patches or an IM injection of butorphanol.
Design—Randomized prospective clinical trial.
Animals—22 client-owned cats weighing 2.2 to 5 kg
(4.84 to 11 lb) undergoing onychectomy.
Procedure—Researchers were blinded to which cats
received a TDF patch (25 µg/h) 18 to 24 hours prior to
surgery or an IM injection of butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg
[0.09 mg/lb]) at the time of sedation, immediately following
extubation, and at 4-hour intervals thereafter
for 12 hours. Clinical variables, plasma cortisol concentration,
and pain scores were evaluated and
recorded 24 hours prior to surgery, at extubation, and
2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after surgery.
Results—The TDF group had a lower pain score than
the butorphanol group only at 8 hours after surgery.
Both groups had significantly lower mean plasma cortisol
concentrations 0, 24, 36, and 48 hours after
surgery, compared with mean plasma cortisol concentrations
prior to surgery. No significant differences
in appetite or response to handling the feet were
observed between the 2 groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our data did
not reveal a difference in pain relief between administration
of TDF and butorphanol. Plasma cortisol concentrations
were not different between groups.
Fentanyl appeared to provide equivalent analgesia to
butorphanol in cats undergoing onychectomy. The primary
advantage of using a TDF patch is that repeated
injections are not required. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To compare long-term results of radiotherapy
alone versus radiotherapy followed by exenteration
of the nasal cavity in dogs with malignant
Animals—53 dogs with malignant intranasal neoplasia.
Procedure—All dogs underwent radiotherapy consisting
of administration of 10 fractions of 4.2 Gy each
on consecutive weekdays. For dogs in the surgery
group (n = 13), follow-up computed tomography was
performed, and dogs were scheduled for surgery if
persistent or recurrent tumor was seen.
Results—Perioperative complications for dogs that
underwent surgery included hemorrhage requiring
transfusion (2 dogs) and subcutaneous emphysema
(8). Rhinitis and osteomyelitis-osteonecrosis occurred
significantly more frequently in dogs in the radiotherapy
and surgery group (9 and 4 dogs, respectively)
than in dogs in the radiotherapy-only group (4 and 3
dogs, respectively). Two- and 3-year survival rates
were 44% and 24%, respectively, for dogs in the
radiotherapy group and 69% and 58%, respectively,
for dogs in the surgery group. Overall median survival
time for dogs in the radiotherapy and surgery group
(47.7 months) was significantly longer than time for
dogs in the radiotherapy-only group (19.7 months).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that exenteration of the nasal cavity significantly
prolongs survival time in dogs with intranasal neoplasia
that have undergone radiotherapy. Exenteration after
radiotherapy may increase the risk of chronic complications.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:936–941)