Objective—To identify reasons for engagement in
continuing veterinary medical education (CVME)
activities, obstacles to participation, ways to provide
more effective programs, and ideas to improve participation
Design—Focus group interviews.
Sample Population—Selected practicing veterinarians
from a state that did mandate continuing education
Procedure—12 focus group interviews were held
throughout the state of California between May and
September 1998. Practitioners were asked to
respond to questions about where they obtain information
to improve their practice, what value they see
in CVME, what motivates them to participate, what
obstacles to CVME participation exist, and ways
CVME providers and practitioners could overcome
Results—84 practitioners participated in the focus
group interviews. In addition to the educational value
of CVME, participation was used to rejuvenate practice
life and prevent feelings of isolation. Continuing
education activities ranged from problem-oriented
chats with colleagues to formal educational programs.
Timing of events, distance, money, solo practice,
stage of career, and family demands were identified
as barriers to participation. Designing and marketing
CVME with specific learning objectives and for
specific career stages and using new educational
delivery technologies were suggested to overcome
some of these barriers.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—If CVME is to
improve practice and patient care, it should be integrated
into a practice's strategic planning and considered
a legitimate business expense. Decisions about
CVME participation are made easier if program objectives
are clearly outlined. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To compare published recommendations regarding biosecurity practices for various production animal species and classes.
Population—Educational materials available on the World Wide Web that provided biosecurity recommendations for dairy cattle, beef cattle, small ruminant, swine, and poultry producers.
Procedures—Web sites for national producer organizations, university cooperative extension services, and state departments of agriculture were searched to identify educational materials with biosecurity recommendations.
Results—A single national organization was selected as representing each animal agriculture commodity group. A total of 53 university Web sites were visited, and 65 publications prepared by university cooperative extension services were identified and evaluated. Web sites for all 50 state departments of agriculture were searched, and 29 were found to have at least 1 publication related to biosecurity practices, for a total of 46 publications. Evaluation of the biosecurity recommendations revealed wide variations by source and within and among commodity groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that educational materials for producers contained wide variations in recommended biosecurity practices. It is possible that some producers choose not to implement biosecurity recommendations because of confusion as to the specific recommendations they should follow.
To explore veterinarians' perceptions and veterinary experts' opinions regarding antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) on dairy farms in the western United States.
20 dairy veterinarians and 9 AMS experts.
3 focus group discussions involving 20 dairy veterinarians from California, Idaho, and Washington and an expert opinion study involving 9 North American AMS experts were conducted. During focus group discussions, participants were asked open-ended questions regarding implementation of AMS programs on dairy farms. Discussions were recorded and transcribed for thematic analysis. An asynchronous nominal group process was used for the expert opinion study. Participants were asked to complete a series of 3 online surveys consisting of open-ended questions. Expert opinion data underwent thematic analysis and were compared with results obtained from focus group discussions.
Veterinarian-perceived barriers to implementation of AMS on dairy farms included variable relationships with clients and farm employees, ensuring AMS provided value to the farm, and uncertainty about regulations for monitoring on-farm antimicrobial use (AMU). Veterinarians were willing to accept additional responsibility for AMU provided that protocols were adopted to ensure them more complete control of on-farm AMU and they were compensated. The AMS experts indicated that effective implementation of AMS on dairy farms requires producer buy-in and tools to facilitate treatment protocol development and monitoring.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Additional veterinary oversight of AMU on dairy farms will require engagement by both veterinarians and producers and practical value-added methods for AMS. Continuing education programs should address treatment protocol development, AMU monitoring strategies, and employee training.
Objective—To evaluate serovar and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella enterica isolated from preweaned calves and identify management risk factors associated with fecal shedding of S enterica.
Sample Population—Cohorts of 10 to 15 preweaned calves (1 to 84 days of age) on 26 dairies and 7 calf ranches and cross-sectional samples of preweaned calves on smaller farms.
Procedures—Calves were evaluated every 2 weeks during a 6-week period. Salmonella isolates obtained from rectal fecal swabs underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing against 12 antimicrobials. Cluster analysis enabled description of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Calf, cohort, and farm risk factors associated with both the prevalence of S enterica and multiple-antimicrobial–resistant S enterica in preweaned calves were identified with repeated-measure logistic regression models.
Results—Salmonella enterica was detected on > 50% of farms and in 7.5% of 3,686 fecal samples. Many isolates (33%) were resistant to multiple antimicrobials. Shedding of Salmonella spp was negatively associated with increasing calf age, herds being closed to incoming cattle, and antimicrobial supplementation of milk replacer; prophylactic antimicrobial treatment in day-old calves increased shedding. No association between farm management and presence of multiple-antimicrobial–resistant S enterica or between calving management and presence of S enterica in calves ≤ 1 week old was detected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In preweaned calves, the most important factors associated with decreased likelihood of fecal shedding of S enterica were the use of antimicrobial-supplemented milk replacer and maintenance of a closed herd. Infection with multiple-antimicrobial–resistant S enterica was not associated with antimicrobial administration.
Objective—To compare efficacy of a topically administered
nonantimicrobial cream with that of lincomycin
for treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle.
Design—Randomized clinical trial.
Animals—98 cows from a commercial Holstein dairy
Procedure—Cows with active lesions of digital dermatitis
identified on a single observation day were
randomly assigned to receive a nonantimicrobial
cream, lincomycin paste, or no treatment. Cows were
examined approximately every 4 weeks for 130 days
after treatment for lesion maturity score, score for
signs of pain, lesion size, and lesion activity.
Results—29 days after a single treatment, both treated
groups had significantly reduced scores for signs
of pain, lesion activity, lesion size, and the decision to
retreat, compared with findings in the untreated
group. Efficacy of the 2 treatments was not significantly
different for decreasing pain score or lesion
activity or for increasing lesion maturity score, but lincomycin
was significantly more efficacious in
decreasing lesion size and avoiding retreatment. By
use of multivariate logistic regression, lactation number
was a significant treatment effect modifier on the
outcome of a healed lesion after treatment. Cows
with ≥ 3 lactations were more likely to have a healed
lesion at 29 days, compared with first- and secondlactation
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Because
antimicrobial treatments for digital dermatitis in cows
require a veterinarian's prescription, the nonantimicrobial
cream could serve as a viable but less consistently
effective alternative to antimicrobials and could
be applied by veterinarians, hoof trimmers, and others.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1435–1438)
Objective—To identify the perceived market or client
demand for dairy on-farm food safety services by veterinarians,
the need for a food safety continuing education
program, and the educational issues that might
be addressed in an on-farm food safety curriculum.
Study Population—Consulting dairy veterinarians,
government veterinarians located in California, and
meat packers slaughtering cull dairy cows in
Procedure—Results of a questionnaire supplied to
veterinarians and telephone interviews with meat
packer representatives were analyzed by use of univariate
and multivariate logistic regression procedures.
Results—Some meat packers considered the quality
of incoming cull dairy cattle as a control point for food
safety hazards. More than 50% of dairy and government-
employed veterinarians believed that a current
market for on-farm food safety services exists; > 85%
believed that a potential market exists. Duration since
graduation was negatively correlated with belief in a
current market. Government-employed veterinarians
were more likely to believe in a current market.
Veterinarians were more likely to express a strong
interest in offering on-farm food safety services if
they believed a current market exists, indicated that
they already offer such services, or listed residues
and pathogens as the most important issues facing
the dairy industry.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although a
potential market for on-farm food safety services is
perceived, veterinarians are unsure of their role in this
area. New demands of meat packers slaughtering cull
dairy cows may be the motivation practitioners need
to broach the subject of food safety with clients. (J
Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:479–484)
Objective—To understand the epidemiology of animal
bites and exposure, evaluate the animal exposure
reporting system for surveillance of rabies postexposure
prophylaxis (PEP), and identify opportunities to
Design—Period prevalence survey.
Study Population—Pennsylvania residents in 1995.
Procedure—Data from animal bite reports from
Pennsylvania county health offices were summarized
for 1995. Animal bite incidences for the state, counties,
various age groups, and various population densities
were calculated. Animal species, treatment,
location of wounds, and PEP recommendations were
evaluated for exposures.
Results—More than 16,000 animal-related potential
rabies exposures were reported from 65 of 67 counties
in Pennsylvania. The highest incidence was in children
less than 5 years old (324/100,000). Of the 75%
of victims requiring wound treatment, 50% received
antimicrobials, 29% received a tetanus toxoid, and
19% had wounds sutured, were admitted to hospitals,
or were referred for plastic surgery. Although
75% of exposures were to dogs, victims exposed to
cats were 6 times as likely to receive PEP (relative
risk, 6.1; 95% confidence interval, 5.1 to 7.4). Thirty
percent of 556 PEP were given for exposures to dogs,
44% for cats, 7% for raccoons, 4% for bats, 2.5% for
squirrels, 2.1% for groundhogs, 2% for foxes, and
8% for exposures to other species. Fifty-nine percent
of owned dogs were up-to-date on rabies vaccinations
compared with 41% of owned cats.
Conclusion—Interventions, such as dog bite prevention
education, vaccination of pets against rabies,
appropriate use of PEP, and reduction of feral cat populations,
should be instituted, enhanced, or better
enforced in communities. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
To assess veterinarian engagement with owners of poultry and livestock in urban and peri-urban areas (UPAs) of 4 western states, to evaluate the knowledge and experience of veterinarians in UPAs for treating domestic poultry and livestock, and to identify barriers to the provision of veterinary services to backyard poultry and small-scale livestock operations.
880 veterinarians in UPAs.
2,400 members of the veterinary medical associations of California, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington who worked in metropolitan areas with a population > 5,000 people were randomly selected and invited to participate in a needs assessment survey. Response data were analyzed with univariable logistic regression and multiple correspondence analysis.
880 (37%) invitees completed or partially completed the survey. Most respondents self-reported working in UPAs (686/825 [83%]) and companion animal only (n = 551) or predominant (211) practices. Although most (656/863 [76%]) respondents perceived an increase in backyard poultry and livestock in their practice areas, few were actively treating such animals primarily because of a lack of facilities, interest, or experience. Most respondents believed veterinarians have an important role in ensuring public health and preventing zoonotic disease.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Backyard poultry and livestock are increasing in popularity in UPAs of 4 western states, and veterinarians are needed to provide services to such animals. Further research and continuing education are necessary to encourage practitioners in UPAs to engage with owners of backyard poultry and livestock to ensure the health and welfare of those animals and guard public health. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2020;257:196-209)
Objective—To characterize an outbreak of valineassociated
scrapie, assess the relative risk of scrapie
infection in relation to allele frequency at codon 136,
and investigate lateral transmission of infection in a
sheep flock within the United States.
Procedure—To determine genotypes, blood or
semen samples were assessed via commercial testing;
in 190 slaughtered sheep, scrapie status was
determined via immunohistochemical evaluation of
tissues. Scrapie-positive sheep born to scrapie-negative
dams and sheep infected after 1 year of age were
identified to assess lateral transmission.
Results—Genotypes were determined for codon 171
(164 sheep) or codons 136 and 171 (842 sheep).
Forty-four of 160 slaughtered sheep of known genotype
were scrapie positive. In these sheep, the presence
of at least 1 valine allele at codon 136 (V136) was
highly correlated with scrapie-positive status. Lateral
transmission was the probable source of infection for
4 scrapie-positive sheep born to scrapie-negative
dams and for 11 sheep in which scrapie was diagnosed
at > 50 months of age.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that the outbreak of scrapie was associated with
a relatively high frequency of V136 in the flock, introduction
of a valine-dependent scrapie strain, and the
occurrence of lateral transmission. Genotyping of
sheep may assist management decisions following
diagnosis of scrapie in a sheep with at least 1 V136. It
may be prudent to remove sheep of the diploid genotype
AVQR (at codons 136 and 171) from infected
flocks. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1302–1307)