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  • Author or Editor: Dae-Yong Kim x
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To assess the characteristics of blebs formed after Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) surgery in dogs using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and to analyze their correlation with postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP).


16 eyes (13 dogs) were diagnosed with primary angle-closure glaucoma and were followed up after AGV surgery from June 2021 to September 2023.


In this prospective study, UBM examinations were performed to assess bleb characteristics, including bleb wall thickness and reflectivity. IOP at the time of UBM imaging and the duration from AGV surgery to UBM imaging were recorded. Histological examination of an enucleated eye removed due to uncontrolled IOP leading to blindness was also conducted.


A significant correlation was observed between IOP and relative reflectivity (Pearson r = 0.60; P = .01), and a negative correlation was observed between bleb wall thickness and relative reflectivity (Pearson r = −0.72; P = .002). No significant correlation was observed between the duration from AGV surgery to UBM imaging and either bleb wall thickness or relative reflectivity, respectively. Histological examination of the enucleated eye revealed collagen-rich fibrous encapsulation of the bleb wall, including myofibroblasts that exhibited positive α-smooth muscle actin immunostaining.


In dogs that underwent AGV surgery, less dense, thick-walled blebs on UBM tended to maintain IOP within the normal range. However, denser, thinner-walled blebs showed IOP levels above the normal range despite the use of antiglaucoma medications. UBM is a useful tool for evaluating bleb characteristics and their influence on IOP regulation after AGV surgery in dogs.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Case Description—An 8-month-old koi (Cyprinus carpio) fish was examined at the animal hospital at Seoul National University for anal obstruction.

Clinical Findings—The affected fish was lethargic and anorexic, appeared depressed, and had a nodular obstruction at the anus. A biopsy specimen from the anal mass was submitted for histologic examination, which revealed a number of protozoa. On the basis of the morphological characteristics of the spores and the location of the plasmodia (ie, vegetative form of the parasite), a diagnosis of a cyst containing Thelohanellus kitauei was made. Thelohanellus kitauei is a protozoan parasite that affects freshwater fish by producing cyst-like tumors that may cause intestinal obstruction. Thelohanellus kitauei infection with cystic disease has been reported to affect Cyprinus spp worldwide.

Treatment and Outcome—The cyst was removed surgically. After surgery, low-concentration tricaine methanesulfonate immersion was used for sedation and antimicrobial treatment was administered. The surgical wound healed completely, and the fish was clinically normal 14 months after surgery.

Clinical Relevance—The successful outcome in this fish suggested that surgical removal may be a viable option for treatment of T kitauei infection in koi fish. The results of morphological analyses provided basic information on the relationships between tissue tropism and Thelohanellus spp.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association