A 20-month-old 455-kg (1,000-lb) pregnant Brown Swiss heifer was examined for a right mandibular swelling of 9 weeks' duration. The heifer had not been seen by a veterinarian prior to this evaluation, and the owner had not attempted any treatment. The swelling had rapidly tripled in size over the preceding week. The heifer was observed to salivate and to drop feed material when eating hay and grain. Mild weight loss had occurred after the swelling was noticed. At the time of the physical examination, the heifer was bright and alert. Asymmetry of the head was seen, especially swelling of
Objective—To determine whether 2 isolates of
recently isolated swine-origin Helicobacterpylori-like
bacteria are pathogenic in pigs and compare the signs
of gastric disease induced by these isolates with
those detected in H pylori- and Helicobacter heilmannii-in fected pigs.
Animals—36 neonatal gnotobiotic pigs.
Procedure—Groups of separately housed pigs were
inoculated orally with swine-origin Helicobacter-like
isolates 2662 or 1268, H pylori (human gastric
pathogen), or a gastric homogenate from gnotobiotic
swine containing H heilmannii. Noninoculated pigs
were used as control animals. Clinical signs and
development of homologous and heterologous antibodies
against Helicobacter organisms were
assessed. After euthanasia, gastric tissues were
examined grossly and microscopically; Helicobacter
organisms were detected by use of Warthin-Starry
and immunohistochemical stains.
Results—Both porcine Helicobacter-like isolates colonized
the stomachs of swine. Isolate 2662 was highly
pathogenic; in 13 isolate 2662-inoculated pigs, gastroesophageal
ulcerations developed in 9 and ulceration
of the gastric glandular mucosa was detected in 5.
Histologically, inflammatory gastritis consisting of multifocal
to diffuse lymphocytic and plasmacytic cellular
infiltrates and lymphoid follicle formation in the gastric
lamina propria accompanied bacterial colonization of
the gastric compartment. In contrast, H heilmannii was
minimally pathogenic in that only modest inflammatory
cell infiltrates were seen. Gastroesophageal or
mucosal ulcers were not evident in pigs inoculated
with H heilmannii.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data
indicate that swine-origin H pylori-like bacteria can be
pathogenic in pigs and suggest that porcine gastric
disease may be mediated, in part, by colonization of
the stomach by swine-origin H pylori-like bacteria.
(Am J Vet Res 2005;66:945–952)
Objective—To determine the insulin response curve
during IV glucose tolerance testing of mature Holstein
Animals—8 Holstein bulls between 5 and 8 years old
and weighing between 911.5 and 1035.5 kg.
Procedure—A 50% glucose solution was rapidly
administered IV so that each bull received a mean
dose of 258 mg of glucose/kg of body weight. Serum
glucose and insulin concentrations were determined
before and 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after glucose
Results—Serum glucose concentrations 30 and 60
minutes after infusion were significantly greater than
baseline concentration. Concentrations returned to
baseline values 120 minutes after infusion. Serum
insulin concentration was significantly greater 30 minutes
after glucose administration, compared with
baseline and 240-minute concentrations.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intravenous
glucose tolerance testing of mature Holstein bulls
resulted in a characteristic insulin response curve.
Baseline and peak insulin concentrations were higher
in these bulls, compared with values reported for
mature Norwegian Red cows. (Am J Vet Res 2000;
Case Description—An 11-year-old 72-kg (158-lb) sexually intact female alpaca was examined for diagnosis and treatment of hematuria of 4 months' duration.
Clinical Findings—Pigmenturia was detected by the owner when the alpaca was 8 months pregnant. Radiographic, ultrasonographic, vaginal speculum, and cystoscopic evaluation of the urinary tract revealed normal vaginal and urethral epithelia and increased bladder vessel tortuosity, with pulses of hemorrhage from the left ureter. Regenerative anemia and mild leukopenia were detected and serum urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations were within reference ranges.
Treatment and Outcome—Chronic hematuria resolved after unilateral nephrectomy of the left kidney, and no dysfunction was detected in the remaining kidney. Histologic evaluation of the kidney revealed a transitional cell tumor in the renal pelvis.
Clinical Relevance—Although anemia is common in South American camelids, hematuria is an uncommon sign of this condition. Chronic urinary tract infection, toxin ingestion, and neoplasia causing hematuria or hemoglobinuria should be considered in South American camelids with pigmenturia. Thorough and systematic evaluation of the urinary tract should be performed to locate the site of hemorrhage to treat hematuria appropriately.