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A 20-month-old 455-kg (1,000-lb) pregnant Brown Swiss heifer was examined for a right mandibular swelling of 9 weeks' duration. The heifer had not been seen by a veterinarian prior to this evaluation, and the owner had not attempted any treatment. The swelling had rapidly tripled in size over the preceding week. The heifer was observed to salivate and to drop feed material when eating hay and grain. Mild weight loss had occurred after the swelling was noticed. At the time of the physical examination, the heifer was bright and alert. Asymmetry of the head was seen, especially swelling of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether 2 isolates of recently isolated swine-origin Helicobacter pylori-like bacteria are pathogenic in pigs and compare the signs of gastric disease induced by these isolates with those detected in H pylori- and Helicobacter heilmannii-in fected pigs.

Animals—36 neonatal gnotobiotic pigs.

Procedure—Groups of separately housed pigs were inoculated orally with swine-origin Helicobacter-like isolates 2662 or 1268, H pylori (human gastric pathogen), or a gastric homogenate from gnotobiotic swine containing H heilmannii. Noninoculated pigs were used as control animals. Clinical signs and development of homologous and heterologous antibodies against Helicobacter organisms were assessed. After euthanasia, gastric tissues were examined grossly and microscopically; Helicobacter organisms were detected by use of Warthin-Starry and immunohistochemical stains.

Results—Both porcine Helicobacter-like isolates colonized the stomachs of swine. Isolate 2662 was highly pathogenic; in 13 isolate 2662-inoculated pigs, gastroesophageal ulcerations developed in 9 and ulceration of the gastric glandular mucosa was detected in 5. Histologically, inflammatory gastritis consisting of multifocal to diffuse lymphocytic and plasmacytic cellular infiltrates and lymphoid follicle formation in the gastric lamina propria accompanied bacterial colonization of the gastric compartment. In contrast, H heilmannii was minimally pathogenic in that only modest inflammatory cell infiltrates were seen. Gastroesophageal or mucosal ulcers were not evident in pigs inoculated with H heilmannii.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data indicate that swine-origin H pylori-like bacteria can be pathogenic in pigs and suggest that porcine gastric disease may be mediated, in part, by colonization of the stomach by swine-origin H pylori-like bacteria. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:945–952)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the insulin response curve during IV glucose tolerance testing of mature Holstein bulls.

Animals—8 Holstein bulls between 5 and 8 years old and weighing between 911.5 and 1035.5 kg.

Procedure—A 50% glucose solution was rapidly administered IV so that each bull received a mean dose of 258 mg of glucose/kg of body weight. Serum glucose and insulin concentrations were determined before and 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after glucose infusion.

Results—Serum glucose concentrations 30 and 60 minutes after infusion were significantly greater than baseline concentration. Concentrations returned to baseline values 120 minutes after infusion. Serum insulin concentration was significantly greater 30 minutes after glucose administration, compared with baseline and 240-minute concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intravenous glucose tolerance testing of mature Holstein bulls resulted in a characteristic insulin response curve. Baseline and peak insulin concentrations were higher in these bulls, compared with values reported for mature Norwegian Red cows. (Am J Vet Res 2000; 61:61–63)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—An 11-year-old 72-kg (158-lb) sexually intact female alpaca was examined for diagnosis and treatment of hematuria of 4 months' duration.

Clinical Findings—Pigmenturia was detected by the owner when the alpaca was 8 months pregnant. Radiographic, ultrasonographic, vaginal speculum, and cystoscopic evaluation of the urinary tract revealed normal vaginal and urethral epithelia and increased bladder vessel tortuosity, with pulses of hemorrhage from the left ureter. Regenerative anemia and mild leukopenia were detected and serum urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations were within reference ranges.

Treatment and Outcome—Chronic hematuria resolved after unilateral nephrectomy of the left kidney, and no dysfunction was detected in the remaining kidney. Histologic evaluation of the kidney revealed a transitional cell tumor in the renal pelvis.

Clinical Relevance—Although anemia is common in South American camelids, hematuria is an uncommon sign of this condition. Chronic urinary tract infection, toxin ingestion, and neoplasia causing hematuria or hemoglobinuria should be considered in South American camelids with pigmenturia. Thorough and systematic evaluation of the urinary tract should be performed to locate the site of hemorrhage to treat hematuria appropriately.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association