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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate risk factors and to describe clinical and laboratory findings, surgical management, and postoperative outcome for cattle with intussusception.

Design

Hospital-based, case-control epidemiologic study and retrospective case series.

Sample Population

Medical records of cattle admitted to 17 veterinary medical teaching hospitals in North America.

Procedure

Epidemiologic analysis of demographic data and detailed analysis of medical records for selected cattle.

Results

336 cattle with intussusception were identified, 281 had small intestinal, 7 had ileocolic, 12 had cecocolic, and 36 had colocolic intussusceptions. Sex and season were not significantly associated with cattle developing intussusception, whereas calves < 2 months old were at greater risk of developing small intestinal intussusception than older cattle. Analysis of medical records of 57 cattle with intussusception revealed that these cattle were mildly hyponatremic, hypochloremic, hypocalcemic, azotemic, and hyperglycemic. Right flank laparotomy with a cow in a standing position, followed by intestinal resection and end-to end anastomosis, was the most common means of surgical correction. Overall survival rate (20/57; 35%) and postoperative survival rate (20/46; 43%) for cattle with intussusception were much lower than previously reported.

Clinical Implications

Although rare in cattle, intussusception was most common in calves < 2 months old. Survival rate for cattle treated for intussusception was low (<50%).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

An agar gel immunodiffusion (agid) test was used over a 3-year period to examine 1,871 serum samples from sheep representing 5 Mycobacterium paratuberculosis — infected flocks and 4 flocks presumed to be uninfected. Of 1,032 sheep, 31 had positive agid test results (scoring 1 to 5), and 23 of these 31 were necropsied. Infection with M paratuberculosis was confirmed by 1 or more of the following findings: observation of typical lesions on histologic examination of sections of ileum or ileocecal lymph nodes, observation of clumps of acid-fast bacteria in mucosal smears of ileum, and isolation of the organism from feces or tissue. False-positive results on agid testing were not found in sheep from flocks known to have exposure to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Diarrhea in infected sheep was observed infrequently; chronic, severe weight loss was the most common sign observed. On histologic examination of tissues from 20 infected sheep, 16 (80%) had diffuse lesions of the ileum and 13 (65%) had acid-fast bacteria in areas of ileal inflammation; 4 had discrete granulomas and peripheral lymphocytic infiltrates in the ileum. Sheep with diffuse lesions tended to have higher mean scores on agid testing and examination for acid-fast bacteria, compared with those from sheep with more discrete lesions. Bacteriologic culture yielded M paratuberculosis from only 3 sheep with paratuberculosis. On the basis of results of this study, we suggest that the nature of the response to infection with M paratuberculosis may influence the results of diagnostic tests for paratuberculosis, and that agid testing may be useful to identify M paratuberculosis infection in sheep with chronic weight loss and in flock-screening programs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine prevalence of lesions associated with subclinical laminitis in first-lactation Holstein cows during early lactation and pregnant Holstein heifers during late gestation in herds with high milk production.

Design

Cross-sectional study.

Animals

203 cattle in 13 herds.

Procedure

Cattle were placed in lateral recumbency to allow visual examination and photography of their hooves. Claws on a forelimb and hind limb were examined on all cattle. Observable categories of lesions considered to be associated with subclinical laminitis in our study included yellow waxy discoloration of the sole, hemorrhage of the sole, separation of the white line, and erosion of the heel.

Results

Lesions in at least 1 of the categories were found in all herds. Lesions in all categories were found in 11 of 13 herds. Among claws, hemorrhage of the sole was observed most frequently in the lateral claw of the hoof of the hind limb. When days in milk was treated as a covariate, significant (P < 0.01) differences were detected in the prevalence of lesions between herds.

Clinical Implications

Because the prevalence of lesions differed significantly among herds, it is logical to believe that causative factors and corrective measures also may have differed among herds. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:1445-1451)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Urinary indices of renal function and damage were measured in 6 healthy, mature ewes over a 48-hour period. Endogenous creatinine clearance, total and fractional electrolyte excretion rates, protein excretion, urine volume, and urine γ-glutamyltransferase and β-glucuronidase activities were measured. Significant variations in the excretion rates of creatinine, electrolytes, and protein were not found between intervals within the 48-hour urine collection period. Total urinary electrolyte excretion rates were significantly (P < 0.001) correlated with fractional electrolyte excretion rates normalized for creatinine concentration; however, coefficient of determination was low.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the prokinetic effect of bethanechol and erythromycin in the upper gastrointestinal tract of healthy horses by measuring the gastric emptying (GE) rate of a radioactive meal.

Animals

4 healthy adult horses.

Procedure

After food was withheld for 12 hours, horses were given 370 MBq of 99mTc-labeled sulfur colloid incorporated into egg albumen and 37 MBq of 111In-labeled diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid in 120 ml of water via nasogastric intubation. Intravenously administered treatments were 0.9% NaCl solution, erythromycin (0.1 or 1.0 mg/kg of body weight), or bethanechol (0.25 mg/kg). All drugs were given in 10 ml of 0.9% NaCl solution. Dualphase scintigraphic images were obtained by use of a gamma camera. The best-fit function was determined for each study, and the resultant curves were then analyzed by use of least squares nonlinear regression. Two variables, time to 50% emptying of the stomach (T-50) and slope of the emptying curve, were derived from the calculated power exponential equation.

Conclusions

Treatment had a significant (P < 0.05) overall effect on T-50 of solid-phase GE. The T-50 of bethanechol (30.09 ± 10.01 minutes), erythromycin at 0.1 mg/kg (59.08 ± 10.01 minutes), and erythromycin at 1 mg/kg (60.50 ± 10.01 minutes) were significantly shorter than T-50 after saline administration (89.97 ± 10.01 minutes). There was a trend (P = 0.09) for the slope of solid-phase GE of bethanechol and erythromycin (0.1 mg/kg; P = 0.37) to be steeper than that of saline solution. For liquid-phase GE, the T-50 and the slope of bethanechol differed significantly (P < 0.05) from those for saline solution.

Clinical Relevance

Bethanechol and erythromycin significantly increased solid-phase GE in healthy horses and may have value for use as prokinetic agents in certain gastrointestinal tract diseases. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1771–1775)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research