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Objective

To determine response rate and remission as well as survival times for dogs with multicentric lymphoma treated first with doxorubicin alone or in combination with asparaginase and then with cyclophosphamide, vincristine sulfate, and prednisone (CVP) and to identify prevalence of toxicoses associated with this protocol and factors associated with prognosis.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

121 dogs.

Procedure

Variables evaluated for prognostic value were initial response rate to chemotherapy, age, breed, sex, body weight, histologic grade, clinical stage and substage, previous corticosteroid treatment, and serum calcium concentration.

Results

Median overall remission and survival times for all 121 dogs were 205 and 237 days, respectively. Response rate (complete or partial response) was 88%. Ten dogs were hospitalized because of toxicoses associated with doxorubicin, and 19 dogs were hospitalized because of toxicoses associated with CVP. Asparaginase favorably influenced the initial response rate, but did not significantly influence overall remission or survival times. Initial response rate to chemotherapy, body weight. clinical substage, and serum calcium concentration was found to have prognostic value.

Clinical Implications

For dogs with multicentric lymphoma, treatment with doxorubicin alone or in combination with asparaginase and then with CVP resulted in an acceptable response rate and low prevalence of toxicoses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:512–516)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

An agar gel immunodiffusion (agid) test was used over a 3-year period to examine 1,871 serum samples from sheep representing 5 Mycobacterium paratuberculosis — infected flocks and 4 flocks presumed to be uninfected. Of 1,032 sheep, 31 had positive agid test results (scoring 1 to 5), and 23 of these 31 were necropsied. Infection with M paratuberculosis was confirmed by 1 or more of the following findings: observation of typical lesions on histologic examination of sections of ileum or ileocecal lymph nodes, observation of clumps of acid-fast bacteria in mucosal smears of ileum, and isolation of the organism from feces or tissue. False-positive results on agid testing were not found in sheep from flocks known to have exposure to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Diarrhea in infected sheep was observed infrequently; chronic, severe weight loss was the most common sign observed. On histologic examination of tissues from 20 infected sheep, 16 (80%) had diffuse lesions of the ileum and 13 (65%) had acid-fast bacteria in areas of ileal inflammation; 4 had discrete granulomas and peripheral lymphocytic infiltrates in the ileum. Sheep with diffuse lesions tended to have higher mean scores on agid testing and examination for acid-fast bacteria, compared with those from sheep with more discrete lesions. Bacteriologic culture yielded M paratuberculosis from only 3 sheep with paratuberculosis. On the basis of results of this study, we suggest that the nature of the response to infection with M paratuberculosis may influence the results of diagnostic tests for paratuberculosis, and that agid testing may be useful to identify M paratuberculosis infection in sheep with chronic weight loss and in flock-screening programs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To develop a system to monitor and detect acute infections of the upper respiratory tract (ie, nares, nasopharynx, and pharynx) in horses and to assess the association among specific viral infections, risk factors, and clinical signs of disease.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

151 horses with clinical signs of acute infectious upper respiratory tract disease (IURD) from 56 premises in Colorado.

Procedure

Health management data, blood samples, and nasal or nasopharyngeal swab samples were obtained for 151 horses with clinical signs of acute IUBD. Of these horses, 112 had an additional blood sample obtained during convalescence and were considered to have complete sample sets. Samples were tested for evidence of respiratory tract infection by use of ELISA, virus isolation, and serologic testing of paired serum samples.

Results

Viral infections were identified in 65 horses with complete sample sets; influenza virus infection was identified in 43 horses, equine herpesvirus (EHV) infection in 18, and mixed influenza virus and EHV infections in 4. On 14 premises, samples were obtained from more than 1 affected horse. Viral infections were identified in horses on 11 of 14 premises. Equine herpesviruses were isolated from 10 horses. A relationship was not found between vaccination history and identification of EHV or influenza virus infections. An infection with EHV was less likely to be identified in horses with initial (acute) antibody titers > 1:16 to EHV.

Clinical Implications

Influenza virus (specifically, A/equine/2) was the most common virus associated with acute IURD. Use of multiple diagnostic tests and obtaining samples from more than 1 horse in an outbreak may improve detection of viral infections. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:385-390)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To measure arterial and venous blood gas, coagulation, and fibrinolysis variables in blood from isolated segments of control and ischemic large colons for the purpose of identifying variables for rapid, indirect assessment of colonic mucosal injury.

Design

Variables were determined at specific intervals during the 4-hour study (3 hours of ischemia and 1 hour of reperfusion).

Animals

Seven clinically normal horses between 2 and 15 years old.

Procedure

Horses underwent laparotomy and occlusion of the lumen and vasculature of the mid-portion of the pelvic flexure of the large colon. During ischemia of 1 randomly-chosen colonic segment, variables were measured to determine colonic mucosal damage and were compared with histologic scores of colonic biopsy specimens.

Results

Significant (P < 0.05) differences from control values were observed over time for venous pH, Pco2, Po2, oxygen saturation, oxygen content, arteriovenous oxygen difference, and lactate and glucose concentrations. Mean histologic scores of biopsy specimens obtained from ischemic colons were significantly (P < 0.05) greater (indicating greater damage) than those from control colons, and increased significantly (P < 0.05) with duration of ischemia.

Conclusions

Venous lactate, oxygen saturation, and Po2 values were the most significant predictors of the severity of histologic damage within the ischemic colons (R 2 = 0.661).

Clinical Relevance

Venous blood gas and lactate values in the large colon are good predictors of the amount of intestinal damage incurred during 3 hours of ischemia, and may be clinically useful for the rapid determination of colonic viability.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research